Plants for a pond, or aquatic, crops are widely used both for decoration of any artificial reservoir in the garden, as well as for domestic reservoirs. To choose the right vegetation for a small or sufficiently voluminous decorative pond in the country, you need to know the basic botanical features of such crops.
Differences and features of aquatic plants for decoration and cleaning of the pond
Pond and river are not only an integral element of modern design, but also an indispensable part of the ecological system of water bodies necessary to stabilize the equilibrium of the ecosystem. The presence of higher plants that clean the waters of reservoirs is especially important for small and stagnant mini-ponds, as it helps to prevent "flowering" and turbidity. Such processes develop especially rapidly in warm and sunny weather, and decaying organics, unicellular algae and bacterial flora can make a reservoir in the yard or in the garden unsuitable for use. For the purpose of purification, in this case, some aquatic higher plants are used that have certain characteristics and features:
- foliage of aquatic plants is characterized by a split, threadlike form;
- the stem part is represented by airways;
- the root system is rather poorly developed.
Criteria for choosing plants for artificial pond
If there is an artificial pond on the personal territory, it is necessary to take into account the total area and depth, as well as the characteristics of the surrounding landscape. It is advisable to give preference to the most unpretentious, not requiring special care species.
When water gardening, it is recommended to consider the following features:
- the ability of a decorative culture to survive the winter period in a pond or soil near it;
- timing and methods of planting, as well as the longevity of the vegetation;
- need for care.
If the pond has a basic foreshortening, then the plant composition should be arranged in such a way that the overgrown vegetation does not block the view of the reservoir. The recreation area is best to formalize low-growing or ground cover crops. With a useful area of four square meters, reeds, cow parsnip, cattail, reeds, and angelica and rhubarb are used. Too small ponds are decorated with arrowhead, calamus, brack, daylily and chastuha. Registration of the survey part is carried out by a short stature of cinquefoil, incense, marigold and dried apricot.
A good result is given by the contrast of long-leaved plants: cattail, calamus, daylily and reed and a round-leaved water lily, lotuses, incense and chastuha. Near-water and aquatic flowers are also widely used. To ensure all-season flowering, such crops can be placed in decorative containers.
What plants to choose for the pond
Characteristics of the best plants for the pond
Absolutely all varieties and types of aquatic vegetation are representatives of the flora, capable of growing not only natural, but also artificial ponds in the water column.
Aquatic, floating on the surface
Foliage of such a decorative culture floats to the surface. A characteristic difference is the lack of fixing of the root system in the ground. Surface vegetation protects the water surface and thickness from overheating and uses organic compounds, which prevents the "flowering" of water. Floating plants can grow very quickly, so they need to provide quality care, including pruning and timely removal of excess shoots. A good result is given by cultivation in special floating baskets.
Perennials of the coastal zone are also very popular in the design of ponds. In order for the vegetation of the reservoir to look interesting and attractive, the coastal territory also needs to be properly designed, as a result of which water-loving crops planted on the shore will be a connecting link.
All kinds of decorative cereal crops, as well as flowering daylilies and irises, swimsuits, meadowsweet, lilberry and valerian, are organically and very picturesque on the coastal zone. Varieties of ferns look incredibly elegant.
Many wetland crops are classified as fairly unpretentious, therefore, are excellent for both sunny and shaded areas. Important to remember, that in order to prevent swamp perennials from growing strongly, it is necessary to periodically floor the planting area.
The qualitative characteristics of water affect the growth and development of flora, so the reservoir must be regularly cleaned. This category includes marsh forget-me-not, Magellan sedge, brambleweed, paprika, crowberry, vaccinium and bog violet.
A significant part of such perennials, useful from the ecosystem point of view, is in the water, and the flowers are above or below the water. They help prevent water pollution, and also serve as food and spawning grounds for fish.
Underwater foliage absorbs mineral salts and carbon dioxide. Several plants planted in the spring-summer period at the bottom of the pond can significantly improve the appearance and condition of pond water.
The root system is located in the bottom soil, foliage on the surface of the water, and flowers on the surface or above the water. Some deep-sea crops can purify water, and their absence can cause uncontrolled reproduction of algae and bacteria.
Most often, such a group of decorative perennials is represented by swamp flower or nymphaeum, water lily, yellow capsule, eichhorn, water color, hornwort and duckweed.
Landing rules and design features of water bodies of various types
It is required to plant a couple of plant species of each type in small reservoirs of small volume and size, distributing them into small groups:
- deep-sea and floating vegetation should cover no more than half of the entire water surface;
- it is important to plant aquatic plants according to fitness for certain depth indicators;
- when planting wetland ornamental crops, drainage is mandatory.
How to care for plants in a pond
The design of water bodies can be in the soil or container method of cultivation and planting, performed in the following sequence:
- to the bottom after drainage, fill ten centimeters of the fertile soil substrate, represented by compost, sand and rotted mullein;
- tall coastal vegetation needs to be planted closer to the coast, and deep-sea crops are planted in the central part;
- the bottom surface should be sprinkled with a five-centimeter layer of medium-grained river sand, which serves to protect the root system and soil from erosion.
Heat-loving crops in the winter often quite completely freeze out, so it is advisable to dig them out and move them to storage. No less popular in our country is the container cultivation of aquatic plants, which allows you to move them with the onset of severe cooling in the cellar:
- For cultivation, a sufficiently spacious, trellised type landing tank is used, which allows the root system to actively multiply;
- it is best to use brightly colored containers that will blend in with the surroundings;
- the bottom part and walls are recommended to be effectively protected from leaching of the nutrient substrate by burlap, and sprinkled with gravel.
As a rule, all aquatic vegetation is planted from the last spring decade to mid-summer. You need to approach the design very carefully and responsibly.
|The appearance of the reservoir||Recommended for decoration plants|
|Geometric ponds||Ordinary calamus, three-leafed watch, loosestrife, coin or meadow tea, looselike loosestrife or placun grass, dichrome broadleaf, drooping isolepis, iris airid or aquatic, as well as sedge, syphilitic lobelia, long-leaved buttercup, large mansion and marsileia dull|
|Deep pond||When making use of tall reeds, cattail, reeds, buzulnik and Rogersia, as well as stunted incense and function or beautiful flowering snake mountaineer and Iris swamp|
|Mini ponds and shallow water||Plants such as the butterfly, calamus, sedge or mannitol are characterized by a high level of unpretentiousness and vitality, therefore they grow well even in conditions of significant fluctuations in water level, and for some time even in its complete absence|
|Pond with a decorative fountain||For registration, you can use water hyacinths, dwarf varieties of water lilies. It is recommended to decorate the coastline with a cuff, gravilat, psyllium poultice, cuckoo color, undersized irises, curved chinton or bog forget-me-nots|
Of course, in large reservoirs, you can diversify the design and plant a significant number of plants. Spring flowering opens with cinquefoil, kaluga and incense, after which water lilies, angelica and hogweed bloom, and brown-yellow daylilies, marshmallows and angelica complete the color parade. However, even small ponds can look very attractive. Experts advise combining the cultivation of several types of water-land plants, which allows you to get the most decorative result.