Fruit trees in winter need some protection, because there are many factors that can destroy a garden in severe cold. Today we will talk about what measures should be taken to prepare the garden for winter holidays.
We already know some precautions that can protect plants from freezing and from the spring attack of insects. Some of them will be mentioned by us again, but we will also tell you about other secrets.
Top dressing - when and how to water
Top dressing before the cold season is an important part of preparing the garden for wintering. Fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium will contribute to the strengthening of all parts of the tree and increase their winter hardiness, which is very important for young plants and seedlings of the current year.
Superphosphate and potassium sulfate can be used for this process. Fertilizers are introduced into the soil strictly according to the instructions on the fertilizer packaging, in the trunk circles. But most positively in late summer and early fall, fruit trees respond to foliar top dressing in the form of crown spraying. To do this, you can use potassium monophosphate - a complex fertilizer that contains the necessary components to strengthen the plant and prepare it for the cold period.
You need to know that the root system of garden trees is able to withstand temperatures up to -15-16 ° C, while dwarf specimens in the garden have a limit that is 2-3 degrees higher. Naturally, there are practically no such temperatures under a layer of snow, but if the garden experiences a frosty winter without snow, serious troubles are possible.
If the root system is damaged by frost, this does not mean that the tree will die immediately. It may bloom with the first warmth and even bloom, but the lag in development will be seriously noticeable. Usually, in summer, such plants die.
In this case, if you notice a developmental delay, tree injuries, and his illness in time, you should quickly help the plant escape, otherwise it can be lost forever. Restore life and health will help special stimulants that must be used during irrigation. These are Kornevin, Heteroauxin and Zircon - drugs for restoring the root system.
Cleaning the orchard, cleaning and whitewashing
Here we prefer not to repeat ourselves, since detailed material on this subject is already available. You can read about how to clean and whiten trees in the fall and, applying the knowledge gained in the garden, go to the following measures to protect the orchard and prepare it for wintering.
Hardening of plants, mulching of the soil
The process of hardening the root system is very important, since many plants in winter can disappear from frost, especially if the winter turned out to be fierce, but snowless.
Hardening is carried out by a very simple method, which even an inexperienced summer resident can do. You just need to remove the soil layer near the tree trunk, no more than 3-5 cm, and store in a dry and cool (but not freezing) place until the first frost. In this case, it is important to harden the bare roots with cold, but not to miss severe frosts, otherwise you can do harm. With the onset of the first frosts, the earth returns to its place.
Thanks to a similar process, the root system will gradually get used to severe cold and will react to them more neutrally, freely surviving even winters without snow.
Hardening is necessary if you want to protect apples and pears from the winter cold. Other species of fruit trees do not react so much to frost.
Preparing the garden for winter is also done by mulching stone fruits or apple trees that are grafted onto a semi-dwarf rootstock. Mulching the soil is carried out by any dry bulk material that is available in the country. It will be most correct to mulch closer to mid-late November.
A charge of moisture must be carried out by mid-October, this is also a special preparation of trees for winter.
Abundantly watering the orchard is necessary during the fall season, as the root system consumes water and charges until the first frosts and freezing of the upper layers of the soil.
If the autumn was rainy, it is not necessary to produce such irrigation, but if the weather is dry and more or less warm, try to moisten the soil well in near-stem circles, and preferably around the entire crown. It is necessary to water abundantly, so that the soil over the specified area is moistened to a depth of 30-40 cm.
The approximate amount of water for a young tree is about 40-60 liters, for an adult amount of water can reach 150-200 liters.
It is necessary to moisten the soil in near-stem circles and under the entire crown, because it is in these places that the youngest roots are located. It is advisable to water the tree in several approaches, so that the soil is well saturated with moisture. You can arrange portioned watering for 2-3 days. To facilitate the task, you can build a small moat and make an earthen rampart. The diameter of such a structure for young trees is 60-70 cm, for adults - up to 2 m.
It is desirable to produce watering in batches, the water should saturate the soil well, it is impossible that water flows down the trunk.
Protecting seedlings from rodents
This process is very simple, but it will take some time, because it all depends on the number of trees in the garden.
Protecting the garden from rodents can be framed in the simplest way - winding the stem with old tights, spruce branches or kraft paper. If there is an opportunity to spend a little money for better protection, we recommend that you hardwood for roofing with roofing felt, roofing felt, reed mats or special plastic gratings that qualitatively limit rodent access to the trunk.
It is imperative to remove the winding of the boles with the first heat so that the tree bark does not freeze and does not acquire unpleasant diseases.
Rather, it is a preventive measure, but it is necessary to apply it, even if the tree does not get sick with anything. Spraying from fungal infections will help the plant not get the disease on the warm days of autumn or winter, as well as with the first spring heat, when it becomes very possible.
It is advisable to carry out spraying after leaf fall, so that the maximum of a special solution falls on the trunk and branches, rather than burning leaves and poisoning the fruits before harvesting. Processing is carried out with copper sulfate (5%, in a bucket of water 300 g of vitriol). It will be most correct to dilute vitriol in a liter or two of hot water, and only then mix with the rest of the volume, since the drug does not dissolve very well in cold water.
Spraying is carried out before protection against rodents and whitewashing of boles.
How to cover trees for the winter
Many shrubs and trees do not feel very well in the winter, especially when the winter is snowless and the earth, along with the roots of the plants, seriously freezes. This fact can lead to plant diseases or even their death, and therefore, some varieties and species need to be adequately covered.
Shelter of trees for the winter it is produced in very different ways - tree trunks are trampled by snow, trees are wrapped with spruce branches, covered with special shields. This topic is generally considered difficult, since we would not recommend applying the same shelter to different plants. True, they say that garden shields that can be made with wooden planks and roofing material do it yourself do an excellent job of this task. They are planted around young trees and cover them from above. As a result, you get a tree in a dry and more or less warm, enclosed space. There is an opinion that trunks do not even need to be whitewashed under shields.
To protect the plants under the shields from rodents, you can arrange special “vases” with tar in the garden, which many rodents simply can’t tolerate. It is advisable to throw poisons or deterrents, since under the shields rodents slip much easier than they get to the bark of wrapped trees.
How to prepare an orchard for wintering (video)
Winter tree life can be much easierif you provide them with specific care. Prepare the garden for winter, and you will not recognize it in spring. Believe me, the next harvest will be more successful, and all the trees that could fall ill or die will survive and will certainly supplement it.