Cherries are juicy and very beautiful berries that adorn the bushes like coral earrings. Their pleasant acidity is refreshing, and preserves and other preparations from this berry delight with their unique taste throughout the winter. To plant cherries on your site and to provide yourself with healthy berries for many years - is this not a dream of any summer resident? However, in order to carelessly collect ripe berries in spacious baskets, you should carefully consider the choice of varieties for planting on your site.
What should be cherry: selection criteria for the variety
So what should be a cherry? About 70% of gardeners will begin to bend their fingers, listing the size of the fruit, their sweetness and ability to tolerate long journeys. Yes, all this is very important, but far from always berries the size of a quail egg satisfy the needs of summer residents, if only because they are born in a very modest amount - no more than 2-3 kg per tree. But the big ones ...
For the successful cultivation of cherries in your area, you should focus on other characteristics:
- The ability to withstand winter cold and spring return frost.
- Stability of fruiting - to be with the crop every year (at least 7 kg from the bush).
- Fruiting dates - to harvest gradually, as it ripens, and not all at once.
- Resistance to diseases and pests.
- Self-fertility - not to be left without a crop if during flowering there was non-flying (for bees, of course) weather.
That, in fact, is all the wisdom of choice. Fortunately, more than 70% of all varieties of cherries possess all of them or satisfy most of these requirements. In addition, many of them are large-fruited, so the aspirations and desires of summer residents will definitely be realized.
Cherries: variety selection
The best varieties of ordinary cherries
Ordinary cherries, that is, bush or standard (it can be grown in one and the other way), is the most common crop after apple trees. Almost all varieties of Russian selection have characteristics that allow it to be grown in areas with unstable or harsh climates - Moscow Region, Non-Chernozemye, the southern part of the Urals and Western Siberia.
Moreover, for cultivation in areas with a short summer, it is recommended to plant early cherries, which begin to ripen by the end of June. Varieties with medium ripening fully yield crops closer to the end of July and the beginning of August. Later varieties ripen in August and bear fruit until early September.
Gardeners and breeders note that the later the crop ripens, the higher the winter hardiness of the plant. Thus, in the more northern regions it is recommended to grow medium-late and late varieties, and in the southern - early and mid-early varieties.
For planting in Russian gardens, it is recommended to purchase the following varietal cherries:
|Grade||Description||Yield per bush / mass of berries||Pollinators|
|Memory of Yenikeyev||An early variety with a spherical crown shape. Vigorous bush||From 8 to 10 kg / not more than 4.7 g||Not required|
|Sania||Early ripe variety with a tree-shaped bush||10 to 12 kg / not more than 4 g||Not required|
|Griot Moscow||A variety of medium early ripening. Grows in the form of a bush with a height of not more than 3 m||Up to 8.5 kg / no more than 3.5 g||Oryol early, Bagryanaya, Vladimirskaya|
|Bulatnikovskaya||Mid-late standard grade with a crown height of not more than 3 m||Up to 11 kg / up to 3.8 g||Not required|
|Volochaevka||Variety of medium ripening, winter-hardy. Medium-sized tree||Up to 13 kg / up to 4.7 g||Not required|
|Robin||Medium-late variety, grows in the form of a tree with a height of not more than 4.5 m||Up to 15 kg / 4 g||Shubinka, Lyubskaya, Bulatnikovskaya, Vladimirskaya|
|Rusinka||Late-ripening variety growing in the form of a bush with a height of about 2-2.5 m. The crown is drooping. It bears fruiting very early.||10 to 12 kg / up to 3 g||Not required|
|Generous||Shrub variety with very late ripening. Grows no more than 2 m in height||Up to 8 kg / about 3 g||Not required|
Even these varieties planted on one site will be enough to provide a family of 6 with jams, compotes and frozen fresh cherries for the whole year.
The best varieties of felt cherries
Unlike ordinary cherries, felt has a more modest size, complete immunity to coccomycosis and decorative qualities, which are fully manifested during its flowering. The main advantage of felt cherry is the absence of root shoots, which greatly facilitates its cultivation on the site.
Felt cherry berries are just as tasty as bush or tree cherries that are familiar to all gardeners. They contain a lot of vitamins and minerals. Unlike its more common cousin, felt cherry does not fall for a long time after ripening, keeping on branches for at least a month and a half.
The best varieties for growing in the most severe or risky climatic zones are:
|Grade name||Ripening period||Description||Productivity of one bush|
|Alice||Middle||The bush is medium-sized, compact, very dense. Berries weighing up to 3.5 g||Up to 8 kg|
|Delight||Early||A medium-sized bush with dense foliage. Berries weighing up to 3 g||Up to 9 kg|
|East||Middle||Compact plant with medium leafiness. Berries weighing up to 3.5 g||Up to 9 kg|
|Natalie||Middle||Vigorous bush with a highly branched crown. Berries weighing up to 4.5 g||6 to 8 kg|
|Ocean Virovskaya||Middle||Vigorous sprawling bush with increased winter hardiness. Berries weighing up to 3 g||7 to 9 kg|
|Fairy tale||Middle||The bush is compact, medium density. Small cherries, up to 3.4 g||Up to 10 kg|
|Eastern dark-skinned girl||Middle||The plant is low, up to 1 m in height, the bush is sprawling and wide. Berries up to 2.8 g||Up to 8 kg|
|Triana||Middle||The bush is ovoid-oval, compact, very dense due to numerous branches. Berries weighing up to 4 g||Up to 10 kg|
|Tsarevna||Middle||The bush is wider in width than in height, medium leaf. Berries are pink, weighing up to 3.8 g||Up to 10 kg|
Almost all varieties of felt cherries listed above can serve as pollinators for each other, since they are self-infertile. If you select bushes that are suitable in size and shape of the crown, you can build a living, generously bearing hedge from them.
The best time to plant cherries
Choosing the most suitable varieties of felt or ordinary cherries for your site, you need to correctly approach the planting process. Here, novice gardeners need to carefully study the basic techniques to minimize the risk of loss of seedlings in the current year and crops in the future.
The first thing you should pay attention to is the condition of the seedling. It is important to remember that root crops of cherries with a developed root system will have higher winter hardiness. An abundance of green foliage, as well as a large seedling height (from 70 cm for annuals and more than 110 cm for two-year-olds), are also considered a minus. Such planting material is likely to freeze in the first winter.
The second point is the choice of landing time. Ideal for felt and ordinary cherries, the period for transplanting to a permanent place is considered mid-April (in the middle lane). In the case when the seedlings were purchased in the fall, it is better to dig them until the spring. If this is not possible, landing is carried out at least a month before the onset of stable cold weather.
It is recommended to prepare the landing pit in advance, at least one month before planting the plants in it. The size of the pit should correspond to the size of the cherry root system + 20-30 cm in width and depth. The pit is filled with fertile soil mixed with humus or compost, and the addition of 150 g of superphosphate and 70 g of potassium salt for every 50 kg of substrate.
How to plant a cherry
The root neck of the seedling is placed at the level of the soil, then the roots are straightened over a small mound, built at the bottom of the pit, and then gradually covered with soil mixture. Watering the seedling in the first days after planting should be plentiful. During autumn planting, it is recommended to mulch the near-trunk circle with rotted manure with a thickness of at least 20 cm, and with the onset of frost, warm the cherries in bulk from the snow.