Growing spruce in a summer cottage is not easy, and therefore we will try to help you make this process faster and more accurate. As a result, you can very well count on the original and very pretty design of the site with Christmas trees in a few years.
Growing fir trees in the country can be called an elite occupation, because not many people undertake such painstaking work, and not many do it well. The thing is that the cultivation of these trees is different from the cultivation of others, a special approach is needed here.
Planting a Christmas tree can occur in several ways - from seeds, from cuttings and seedlings. But, since seedlings are quite expensive, not every summer resident decides to buy them. This is where the idea arises to grow a Christmas tree from seeds, or at least try to do it.
Growing spruce from seeds
Today we will tell you the process of growing these conifers from seeds from start to finish. The process is complicated, we will not argue, but if you want to achieve a result, you will have to work a little.
Spruce seed harvest
It is advisable not to use purchased seeds, because you never know what will be sold to you and in what condition these seeds were stored all the time until acquisition. It is real that their germination will be very low. Therefore, we recommend that you use fresh seeds that you yourself have collected. Thus, you can not only properly prepare the material for planting, but also at the very beginning choose the seeds from the tree that you liked the most.
Seed material needs to be collected in the fall, around October-November. To do this, you have to make a trip to the forest or park, where these plants are available, and collect cones from the trees. The trophies brought home are laid out on dry newspapers in the vicinity of the heaters so that they have the opportunity to dry out a bit and release seeds.
Preparing and planting Christmas tree seeds
Finished seeds are treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, and then placed in a pot with well-calcined sand. It is necessary to close the seeds in the sand to a depth of 1.5 cm. Now the pot is placed on the refrigerator door to create more or less natural conditions for the seeds, because at about that moment the seeds in the forest are in the cold.
Seed stratification stimulates germination, and this has been proven many times. If you just plant the seeds in the sand, then it is far from the fact that they will sprout.
After 3 months, that is, around March, the pot of seeds will need to be removed from the refrigerator and set in a warm place, closer to the light, for example, on a window. During this period, daylight hours are gradually increasing, and therefore such conditions can be safely considered favorable.
Planted Seed Care: How to Water
Now that the seeds in the pot are put on the window and ready to sprout, they should be watered abundantly, again creating natural conditions for them. It is during this period that the snow melts in the forests, and therefore, seeds should be given more moisture, but not overfilled. Do not forget about the heat, that is, the pots must be kept on a warm window.
After 10-15 days, the seeds should germinate, and right now it will be necessary to properly normalize watering, giving exactly as much moisture as is necessary for easy moistening of the soil, otherwise young plantings can rot from overflow.
Spruce seedling care
So, again we remind you that watering should already be moderate, only to maintain moisture, but it is also necessary to fertilize the soil, about once or twice before planting in the soil, do not forget and loosen the top layer of the soil. In addition, it will be necessary to treat weak insecticides so as not to burn plants, but also to prevent them from dying from adversity.
Growing seedlings of spruce in a pot (or pots) occurs before stable warming in the street, and it will be possible to plant them in open ground at the end of May, when the period of night frosts will pass.
Before planting the fir trees in the ground, it is necessary to prepare a hole for the seedling - pour compost there and add stimulating mineral fertilizers. This will be the first and last fertilizer for the plant, if you adhere to the correct growing conditions.
After preparing the fossa, we install a seedling there, cover it with earth and lightly tamp the soil after, pour and cover the seedling with a cut-off plastic bottle from under any drink. Thus, you will create a greenhouse effect for the spruce, due to which the seedlings will undergo acclimatization faster.
Do not forget that this type of greenhouse must be opened every day to ventilate and remove condensate, and after 6-8 days, the bottle sections can be removed altogether, and the soil around the seedlings is covered with mulch.
Growing spruce at home is not an easy task, especially at first, but if you choose seedlings of spruce for planting, which are already more or less adults, the task may become a little easier.
Growing spruce seedlings
If you want to grow spruce seedlings, it will cost you a little more at the initial cost, but you will bypass the process of seed germination and save a little time, that is, get an adult plant in the country faster. But remember that it all depends on agricultural technology, the correct planting and conditions for further maintenance, otherwise even adult and healthy seedlings can be quickly lost.
The cultivation of ordinary spruce begins with planting in the ground at the right place, then only stable care follows, pruning, preparation for the winter period are important.
Planting spruce in the ground
The tree, like any coniferous plant, is planted in the ground in early May (the approximate time for planting) so that the ground is already warmed up, but the weather was not very hot. If the street is generally cool, it is advisable to postpone the landing at the end of summer or the beginning of autumn.
It is necessary to plant spruce in the right place (depending on the variety), in prepared pits located at a distance of at least 2-2.5 meters from each other and a depth of 50-60 cm.The bottom of the pit should be covered with drainage from broken brick (15 see will be enough). Further, a 2/3 pit is filled with a nutrient substrate, which consists of sand, peat, leaf and sod land in the proportions of 1: 1: 2: 2. In the same mixture, you need to add 120-150 g nitroammophoski, and mix well with the composition.
Planting a seedling occurs so that the root bud remains at the level of the soil, then you will have to constantly monitor its correct level (so that the bud does not expose or go under the soil). When the seedling is planted in a pit, watering and backfilling with a layer of peat, 5-7 cm.
Seedlings purchased in special containers are planted in the soil to the same depth as they were in the container.
Growing spruce and care
Young plantings must be properly watered and fed. If the street is hot and arid, then each plant will need 10-12 liters of water weekly, and sprinkling of crowns will not hurt. After each irrigation, it is very advisable to loosen the soil in near-stem circles or mulch it.
As we said earlier, after planting, the spruce trees do not need to be fed, however, they will respond quite positively to the early spring application of Kemira universal (about 100 g per plant) into the soil.
Care is also necessary for the crowns of trees, when in the spring and in the autumn they remove diseased branches, dry and broken branches. It is possible to form a crown if the fir trees are grown for landscape design of the site and occupy a serious role in it.
With proper pruning, you can achieve the formation of a dense green wall or rare plants in a specific pattern on the site.
How to prepare plants for winter?
Spruce need to be protected not only from the scorching summer rays of the sun, but also from frost in the cold period. To do this, trunks circles well mulch with peat, while the needles are covered with kraft paper or non-woven materials.
Growing from cuttings
There is another, quite popular method of growing fir trees in a summer cottage - from cuttings. But here, as in other methods, it will be necessary to observe some special conditions in order to get a beautiful, strong and healthy plant.
Cuttings are most often planted almost immediately after the cut, and the cut is made in spring and autumn. Sometimes even summers give positive results. Cuttings from fir-trees of 5-8 years old, from which annual shoots are cut off, perfectly take root.
Shoots should be used from the top of the crown, cut off only 15-25 cm of the plant, clean the needles at the end of the cuttings (3-5 cm) and plant them in the greenhouse. It is advisable to use a greenhouse with fogging plants, but you can work in a standard greenhouse.
The cuttings are planted in a prepared hole: drainage 4-5 cm, 10 cm of nutrient soil, 5 cm of sand (all in layers). Next, the seedling is prepared by treatment with growth stimulants or a weak solution of potassium permanganate, planted in the finished composition to a depth of 3-5 cm, always at an angle of 30 °. The planting interval is 10 cm. Immediately after planting, the plants are watered and covered with a film, the height of which should be no more than 30 cm from the top soil layer (in our case, sand). The soil temperature in the greenhouse should be at the level of + 21 + 27 ° C, and the air temperature is 4-7 ° lower. Pretty good if there is soil heating in the greenhouse.
In spring and summer, daily watering takes place, in hot weather, up to several times a day. Watering is necessary from a watering can, until the soil is slightly moistened. All this time, the plants must be shaded; at the end of August, the shade can be removed.
Growing spruce at home (whichever way you choose) is a process that is somewhat difficult, and therefore we recommend that you start this event only if you are fully prepared for such difficulties.
Growing fir trees in the nursery: an interesting way of planting (video)
Growing Canadian spruce, blue or prickly winter-hardy - it is always interesting, but rather difficult. As you can see, you need to take care of the plant almost every day to get the expected result. If you are ready for this, you can safely proceed, choosing the most suitable way of growing for yourself. Give your love and care to the plant, and it will certainly repay you with the beauty and aroma of magnificent needles.