When propagated by seeds, all fruit and berry plants produce heterogeneous offspring, and the properties of hybrid seedlings are significantly degraded compared to their parents. Therefore, from the seeds of the apple tree Antonovka it is impossible to obtain exactly Antonovka. The offspring of Antonovka, grown from seeds, in terms of the quality of the fruit, will be the most diverse and not similar to Antonovka. Therefore, the reproduction and preservation of a rich assortment of cultivated plants is possible only by vaccination.
Eye vaccination (budding)
Vaccination methods are different. The most widely used in practice was eye vaccination - nursing in the nursery. This is a reliable way to propagate valuable varieties. By grafting a valuable variety on dwarf rootstock, fruit tree growth can be reduced. Dwarf trees are convenient for picking, processing and caring for them. They used to enter the fruiting season.
Various methods of vaccination are used in the breeding and improvement of new varieties, but the most important and necessary value is vaccination in improving the assortment in existing plantings, as well as in the treatment of trees damaged by frost and rodents. Vaccination is useful in that any low-value variety can be re-grafted with a valuable variety, improving the assortment of the garden. In the gardens of amateur gardeners, sometimes there is not enough pollinator for the desired variety. This deficiency can be easily corrected by planting a pollinator in the crown of any tree.
Re-grafting can be done on any trees, both young and old. By re-grafting, the tree is rejuvenated at the same time, replacing the old skeletal branches with cuttings, from which young branches grow.
You can re-rip trees in the garden in various ways.
The most common and practically acceptable methods of vaccination are: cuttings for the bark with a cut of the bark, half splitting, bridge.
Cuttings over the bark with a cut bark
Trees on which it is supposed to be grafted with the cuttings for the bark with a cut of the bark are rejuvenated in early spring so that the remaining cuttings on the cut (at the end) are 7 to 10 centimeters thick. Sawing larger branches should not be, because the bark in their thick part is too rough and poorly suited for grafting. Sawing off weak twigs under the vaccine is also not recommended. A shank grafted into the thin upper part of the female will develop very poorly due to the unstable position. The main disadvantage of grafting on thin branches is that most of the crown of the tree remains unvaccinated.
It is necessary to provide that on the stump, below the place of vaccination, there is an escape, which is first needed to provide the grafted graft with food. Sawn (torn) hemp before grafting is smoothed, cutting off with a sharp knife, so that they swam faster. Vaccination (insertion) of the cuttings should be carried out during the period of sap flow, approximately in late May. A handle for insertion behind the cortex is prepared as follows: with a sharp copulation knife, from the side opposite the lower kidney, make a slanting cut, and at the top of it, strictly above the third (upper) kidney, cut. An oblique cut can be done with a straight or saddle-like ledge.
In the place of the hemp where the prepared stalk should be inserted, the bark is cut along and the bone of the grafting knife is separated from the wood. The length of the cut of the hemp bark should be equal to or slightly less than the length of the oblique cut of the stalk. An incision for inserting the cuttings must be done in the upper part of the hemp, since the branches in the crown of the tree are not inclined vertically, but. It is possible to plant 2-3 cuttings in one stump, since in the process of growth, vaccinations break off in the wind.
But finally, for life, you need to leave only one well-established root stalk, the future branch. Having unfolded the bark with a bone, the stalk is inserted so that with an oblique cut it faces the rootstock wood, and the ledge (shoulder or saddle) rests firmly on the end of the hemp.
In order for the stalk to fit more tightly with an oblique cut to the hemp wood and not fall out from under the bark, vaccinations should be tied with large twine or a strong bast and cover the hemp area with a soft garden putty.
Grafting fruit trees
The ancient, simplest method of grafting trees in a split has its positive sides: old trees, broken large branches can be grafted into them, without waiting for sap flow; It is simple in execution technique. But the splitting made over the entire thickness of the stump branch causes too serious damage, which is very difficult and slow to heal. Often, splitting leads to rotting of the wood and the formation of a hollow. An improved method of vaccination - half-splitting - has entered into gardening practice.
When vaccinated in half-split, the branch or branch is first sawn off, after which the end part of the foam of the branch is cut off, cutting it obliquely. After smoothing the knife with a knife on the horizontal part of the cut, the branches are split so that it does not reach the opposite side of the hemp. Half-split cuttings for inoculation are prepared as follows: two oblique cuts are made on the handle (on opposite sides, slightly departing from the lower kidney), giving it a flat wedge-shaped shape. The wedge must be performed in such a way that its outer part is wider than the inner face of the grafting graft.
For better fixation and strength, straight ledges called shoulders are cut out at the top of the cuttings intended for grafting. When placing the handle, it is necessary to ensure that its bark coincides with the hemp bark, and with its shoulders it rests against the edges of the splinter. It is better to fill the clay into the crack of the splinter, and cover the top of the hemp and the cuttings with garden varieties. A well-clamped stalk in a splinter can not be tied.
Interesting tree grafting ideas
In order to prevent the death of a tree eaten by mice, damaged by sunburn or torn off when processing tools, grafting with a bridge is recommended. If the bark is only partially damaged, on one side of the trunk and branches, then usually one bridge (cuttings) is inserted. In case of extensive damage, when the bark is destroyed on the trunk or branch in a circle, they put so many bridges so that the distance from one to the other does not exceed 3 cm. The fused bridges connect the separated sections of the bark of the trunk or branches and provide water and water to the sections of the tree located above the damage site.
Bridge vaccination should be performed in the spring, when the sap flow is particularly active, but it can be done in the summer, during the second sap flow.
For spring vaccination, the bridge uses annual shoots that are harvested in autumn or early spring, but before the buds swell. Cuttings are made so that their length exceeds the length of the damaged sections of the cortex by 5-6 centimeters. At the ends of the handle, a bevelled knife performs beveled cuts on one side in the same way as with the “over the bark” grafting method. Before inserting bridges, the edges of the wound are cleaned, longitudinal cuts are made from above and below it. The length of the incisions in the cortex should be significantly less than the length of the beveled sections on the grafting cuttings. The ends of the prepared shank are inserted into these incisions under the bark so that its lower part (in the course of growth) falls on the lower part of the wound, and the upper - on the upper one. Oblique sections of the handle should be directed towards the trunk wood.
It is very important that the handle is slightly longer and spring slightly after being inserted into the cuts. The inserted cuttings must be tightly tied at the top and bottom with twine or sticky PVC tape, you can nail them with thin cloves and cover them with a soft garden putty. It is advisable to tie all places of vaccination with plastic wrap or burlap with white paper to preserve moisture and to prevent germination of the kidneys on the inserted bridges. During the summer, vaccinations need to be looked at and loosened.
Bridges grafted from cuttings in most cases quickly grow into the stem tissue or into the tissue of tree branches, assume the role of a conductor of water and nutrients, and thereby save the tree from death.