Most often, this plant is called arugula. It is also known as arugula, indau, eruca, gallows, caterpillar, roshen salad. In Russia it was called a caterpillar and was considered a weed grass, suitable only for birds and animals. Arugula is the Italian name for this many-sided plant, originating from the Western Mediterranean.
Arugula, or Eruka sowing (Erucavesicariassp. Sativa), is part of the cruciferous family and is a close relative of cabbage, radish, mustard, horseradish and other plants. Depending on the variety, it can be annual or biennial.
The height of its slightly pubescent, straight stem is from 30 to 60 cm. The leaves can be large, lyre-like in cultivars, and in wild-growing ones - narrow, oblong, openwork. The lower leaves form a rosette.
Arugula blooms with white-violet or yellow color, which is pollinated by insects. She is famous as a good honey plant. Flowering of different varieties of eruca occurs in May-July.
Its small brown seeds are collected in an oblong pod. They ripen quickly - in a month. This usually happens in early summer. And then they can already be sown.
Eruka is not picky about the soil. Its main drawback is that it quickly runs wild. In ancient times, the Greeks and ancient Romans grew arugula as a vegetable salad culture, and used it as a spice. Arugula has a peculiar spicy aroma, and its slightly burning taste has mustard and nutty notes.
Useful properties and nutritional value
The benefits of arugula are hard to overestimate. It contains alkaloids, flavonoids, vitamins C, B. It is rich in iodine, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium. There are also malic and citric acids, mustard oil, steroids. Its use in medicine is very extensive:
- Prevention of vitamin deficiency, treatment of scurvy.
- Improving digestion, treatment of gastritis, peptic ulcer.
- The infusion of it has a slight diuretic effect. For its preparation, 2 tablespoons of grass are poured with a glass of boiling water, kept for a couple of hours and drink this remedy during the day.
- Sap plants treat many skin diseases, remove corns and bruises.
- Thanks to dietary fibers contained in eruc, blood cholesterol is reduced.
- It plays a large role in the prevention of cancer.
- Grass is useful for men with specific problems.
Arugula is not indicated for pregnant and lactating women, allergy sufferers, as it is saturated with volatile.
The nutritional value of arugula is also undeniable. Two types of plants are used in cooking: cultivated (sowing) and wild (wild rocket). The latter in Russia is more often sowing.
Juicy endau leaves, with a delicate aroma and a slightly spicy taste with acidity, go well with spinach, various types of salad. They can be added to soup, used as part of salads and cold appetizers.
This amazing leafy vegetable fits well with vegetable stew recipes, serves as an excellent complement and decoration of sandwiches. Added to the cottage cheese or to our popular boiled potato, it gives these ordinary dishes a touch of sophistication.
Side dishes for meat and fish, in which arugula is present, are served in the best restaurants in many countries. In Italy, they like to add it to pizza, risotto and pasta sauces.
The best varieties
Cultivated varieties of arugula are divided into one-year and two-year (Solitaire). The roots of the latter withstand wintering well, and in early spring, juicy greens appear from them. Annual varieties are divided into early varieties, from which harvesting can begin already three weeks after the first leaves appear, and mid-ripening varieties, which are only a couple of weeks behind the early varieties in ripening.
|Grade name||Ripening classification||Short description||Height cm||Vegetation period, days||Using|
|Curiosity||Mid-season||Leaf - lyre-shaped, flower - cream, weight - 18-20g||18-20||22-25||Salads, side dishes for meat and fish dishes|
|Cupid's Arrows||Leaf - long, narrow, flower - light yellow, weight - 15-20g||20-30||35-38||Salads, sauces, side dishes, soups|
|Olivetta||Early||It has juicy, nutty mustard taste sheets; rich in carotene, essential oils, vitamins||15-20||20-25||Salads, spicy side dish for meat and fish, sandwiches|
|Rocket||Leaf - cirrus, dark green, nutty mustard flavor||15-20||20-25||Salads, side dishes, seasonings. Good honey plant|
|Victoria||Greens - plentiful, delicate, rich in vitamins||15-20||20-25||Salads, side dishes for meat, fish. Diet product|
|Poker||Leaf - large, green, sweetish with mustard flavor, flower - pale cream, weight - 20g||18-20||22-28||Salads|
|Solitaire||Mid-season||Leaf - medium, dissected, with notches along the edges, lyre-shaped, nut-mustard taste, weight - 20-45g||18-20||35-45||Salads|
|Spartacus||Early||Dietary variety with spicy taste. Grown year-round, rich in essential oils, vitamins.||19-22||20-25 days||"Men's" salads, side dishes, a prophylactic for vitamin deficiency|
Currently, several varieties of arugula are especially popular, which are perfectly adapted for growing in the climatic and soil conditions of our country.
|Grade name||Ripening period||Power socket||Leaves||Productivity|
|"Poker"||Ripening plant, 22-24 days||Up to 15-20 cm high||Juicy, with a pronounced nutty mustard taste||1.05-1.35 kg / m2|
|"Rococo"||Early ripening plant, 22-24 days||Semi-raised type, 12-18 cm high||Medium in size, green, smooth, lobed, serrated at the edges||1.5-1.6 kg / m2|
|Corsica||Early ripening plant, 26-28 days||Cold resistant, fast growing||Smooth, green, notched, with a spicy taste and pronounced aroma||2.4-2.5 kg / m2|
|Rocket||Ripening plant, 22-24 days||Semi-spreading type, with a diameter of 15-18 cm||Cirrus dissected, dark green, 15-20 cm high, spicy nutty mustard||1.45-1.60 kg / m2|
|"Solitaire"||Early ripening plant, 26-28 days||Semi-raised type, with a diameter of 15-18 cm, a height of 18-20 cm||Medium, lyre-dissected, smooth, with notches along the edges||1.45-1.60 kg / m2|
|Sacramento||Ripening plant, 22-24 days||Mass not less than 16.5-20.5 g||Medium, with strong dissection, smooth, lyre-shaped||1.3-1.4 kg / m2|
When cultivated on a windowsill, such well-known varieties as Sicily, Euphoria, Gourmet, Dikovinka, and Mermaid have worked very well.
Arugula - a fairly unpretentious plant, it grows even where the sun is not always. True, in a dense shade the plant grows smaller and runs wild. But the arugula has its own characteristics that you need to know and consider when planting it:
- Soil requirements. Grows on any soil that needs to be loosened. But it is preferable to plant arugula on slightly acidic or pre-manufactured soils, where calcium is sufficient for its development. Liming is carried out before planting, using lime or dolomite flour, ground chalk and other means. Their doses depend on the level of soil acidity and amount to 25-60 kg per hundred square meters.
- Crop rotation. It is best to alternate the landing of arugula in the area with potatoes, pumpkin, legumes, tomatoes or carrots. It is not recommended to plant them after relatives in the family - cabbage, radish, horseradish and others - earlier than three years later.
Timing and home planting technology
To grow a quality vitamin green culture in indoor or balcony conditions, It is very important to observe the sowing rules:
- ready-made soils with a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction are optimally suitable for arugula;
- green culture is unpretentious and well growing, therefore, preliminary seed germination is not required;
- in prepared landing tanks it is recommended to perform a thin layer of drainage, and prepared soil substrate is poured over it;
- Before sowing, it is necessary to slightly compact the soil mixture and moisten it abundantly;
- the depth of the landing holes should be no more than 0.8-0.9 cm, and the distance between them should be made at least 15-20 cm.
In each hole you need to drop a pair of seeds, and after emergence, a weaker seedling is removed. Arugula should not be covered, since germination is sufficient at a temperature of 16-18 ° C, at which seedlings appear after about five to six days.
Arugula is grown in open ground and in greenhouses (greenhouses).
In sheltered soil, it can be grown all year round. It is important that the temperature in the greenhouse does not drop below 16 degrees, and artificial lighting of already ascended plants is carried out with a lack of sunny days.
Before sowing in the greenhouse, you need to prepare the soil as follows:
- loosening to a depth of 18 cm to completely clear it of weeds and the remains of previous plants;
- additional plowing after 2 weeks. This is necessary for the thorough removal of weeds, which as a result fall into the deep layers of the earth, where they will subsequently form humus;
- harrowing that helps moisture linger in the soil.
Seeds are sown on beds, which are located at a distance of 35-40 cm from each other. Planting holes should be no more than 2 cm deep. 2-3 seeds can be lowered into them. Between the holes you need to retreat by 8 cm. Young shoots are thinned out after about a week.
In open ground, seeds are sown from mid-spring to almost the end of summer with an interval of 2 weeks. In the heat, in order to get a good crop, you need to choose a plot with moderate shading for sowing. After all, arugula does not like the sun too bright.
The sowing pattern for open ground is not too different from sowing in a greenhouse:
- seeding depth - 1.5 cm;
- between the rows should be 40 cm;
- the interval between neighboring plants is 5 cm.
If the shoots are thickened, then during the appearance of two leaves, they should be thinned out.
In this case, the seeds are sown to a depth of 1 cm in a cup (3-4 seeds) or a pot, where 30-35 pieces are placed. In a few days, shoots appear. The grown seedlings are planted in the ground with a lump of earth. The air temperature at this time should be at least 9 degrees. If frosts are expected, then young plants are covered with plastic containers at night, removing them in the morning.
Arugula on the windowsill
Growing plants on the windowsill or on the balcony in the boxes, for each bush you need to allocate an area of 30 to 15 cm. The depth of the box should not be less than 10 cm.
Eruka mainly uses its green leaves, which must be cut off as soon as they grow to 10 cm. Thanks to this, the green is constantly updated. If you let her grow more, then she becomes rude, tasteless. The emergence of new juicy leaves contributes to regular and plentiful watering, especially in the heat. If you do not, then they are very bitter.
Watering is carried out by spraying using sprinklers. A long-term watering of row-spacings with a hose laid on the ground is also considered acceptable. These events are held in the morning or evening hours when there is no heat. The ground between plants is regularly "fluffed" for better penetration of moisture and air.
In addition, spend two-time seedling supplementation. For this we need nitrogen fertilizers (10 g per bucket of water), fermented chicken or cow droppings, diluted 10-15 times. Top dressing is carried out together with watering plants. Given that the arugula has a short ripening period, they are not fed with manure and other mineral fertilizers during its growth. Otherwise, the leaves will accumulate toxic substances.
Arugula: useful properties (video)
Arugula is used in appetizers, salads, sauces, vegetable dishes, soups, side dishes, etc.
A set of products: slightly salted fish - 100 grams, one tomato, red lettuce, a handful of arugula, a spoonful of vegetable oil, vinegar, salt and sugar (for marinade). First, pickle the onions for about ten minutes. Then lay out in layers:
- tomatoes, sliced or sliced;
- onion rings are placed on them;
- lastly, lay out the slices of fish;
- All this is watered with marinade.
For it, you will need 80 grams of arugula, a handful of nuts, 20 g of grated hard cheese, olive oil, a clove of garlic.
Arugula, cheese and nuts are crushed with a blender. Then the mixture is salted, pepper and watered with oil.
A set of products: shortcrust pastry - 250 g, 2 eggs, 100 g each of cream, mozzarella, smoked brisket and hard cheese, 2 tomatoes, mustard, ground pepper, nutmeg.
- the dough is laid out in a form covered with parchment paper, it is pierced with a fork and greased with mustard;
- as a filling, chopped brisket, tomatoes, mozzarella, arugula are used;
- sprinkle with grated cheese, pepper and nutmeg;
- the pie completes the layer of whipped cream eggs;
- it is baked for 40 minutes at a temperature of 210 degrees.
Protection against diseases and pests
Arugula contains essential oils that repel many insects (mosquitoes, fleas). But plants are still susceptible to some fungal diseases. The signs of the manifestation of these lesions and measures to combat them are discussed in the table below.
|Title||Signs||Durability||Methods of struggle|
|Cabbage Moth||Eaten leaves||High||Digging soil, collecting pupae. Processing infusions of wormwood, potato and tomato tops, karbofos.|
|Cruciferous fleas||Leaf damage||High||Traps, digging the soil, spraying with an emulsion of trichloromethaphos-3.|
|Fungus Perono-spora parasitica||Dark brown leaf spots||Average||Crop rotation, soil preparation, weed control|
|Fungus Fikarium oxisporum||Chlorosis of leaves - turn yellow, dark stripes appear||Average|
Arugula, Indau, Eruka are one and the same plant. It has long been known in many countries where it is widely used in traditional medicine, cooking, and cosmetology. It is easy to grow it, it can be done even on the windowsill. A leafy vegetable grows quickly, on the garden site you can get several of its harvests per season. And in a greenhouse, eruca is grown almost all year round. Having become acquainted with this amazing healing plant, you cannot refuse it.