White cabbage is one of the leading vegetable crops and is very widely cultivated by gardeners in personal plots. A wild relative of culture is currently not known for certain.
Cabbage is a vegetable crop belonging to the Cabbage family (Brassicaceae Burnett) and the kind of cabbage (Brassica L.) The synonym for the family is Cruciferous (Cruciferae Juss).
In the first year of vegetation, the plant forms a stalk-stump. Whole sheets are large. The upper and lower leaves, densely located on the stump, intersecting, form a head.
Early ripe varieties have a rosette of 10-15 leaves. Mid-season varieties have 20-25 medium-sized petiole leaves. Late ripening is characterized by the presence of 25-30 long petiole leaves.
The following year, the development of leafy flower-bearing shoots, the height of which does not exceed 150 cm, occurs from the stem buds. The inflorescence is represented by a brush. Standard flowers are large in size. The fruits are long pods. The seed material is round-angular in shape, black with a brown tint. The diameter of the seed does not exceed 2 mm.
The best varieties and modern hybrids
Breeding work on the breeding of new, most promising varieties and hybrids of white cabbage is carried out by both Russian and foreign experts. However, along with new products, some time-tested varieties do not lose their relevance.
Early ripe varieties
To date, according to most gardeners, the following early ripe cabbage varieties deserve special attention.
|"June"||Ultra-mature variety. Oval-shaped heads of cabbage weighing 1.0-2.5 kg. It is used fresh.||2.0 to 6.0 kg per m²||Medium disease resistance. With untimely harvesting, cracking of heads of cabbage is observed.|
|"Transfer-F1"||Matures in a maximum of 120 days. The fruits are round, weighing up to 1.5 kg.||up to 6.0 kg per 1 m²||Medium disease resistance. Lack of tendency to crack.|
|Copenhagen Market||Ripens in a maximum of 115 days. The average weight of a ripe vegetable is from 1.5 to 2.5 kg.||up to 4.5 kg per 1 m²||Medium disease resistance. High crack resistance.|
|"Dietmar Early"||Before the onset of technical maturity, 105-115 days pass. The weight of the head is 1.5 kg.||up to 5.5 kg per 1 m²||The variety is resistant to mucous and vascular bacterioses, as well as to the keel.|
|"Golden hectare-1432"||From full germination to harvest - 102-110 days. The fruits are medium-sized, about 1.5-2.5 kg.||from 5.0 to 8.5 kg per 1 m²||Average disease resistance. It is resistant to "flowering" and drought tolerant.|
It is possible to get a high yield of medium maturity when growing the following varieties.
|"Present"||The ripening period is 130 days. The shape of the heads is round or flat-round. The mass of heads of cabbage is from 2.5 to 4.5 kg.||up to 15.0 kg per m²||Medium disease resistance.|
|"Menza F1"||After transplanting seedlings, 115 days elapse before maturation. The shape of the fruit is round-flat, the stump is very small. The weight of the head is from 4 to 9 kg.||about 15.0 kg per 1 m²||Average disease resistance.|
|"Glory 1305"||From seedlings to harvest no more than 137 days pass. The weight of the head is from 4 to 5 kg.||up to 12.5 kg per 1 m²||Medium disease resistance. Resistant to mucosal bacteriosis.|
|"Glory Gribovskaya-231"||Heading ripening occurs in 125 days. The mass of the fetus ranges from 1.7 to 4.5 kg.||up to 9.0 kg per 1 m²||Medium disease resistance. Quite frequent cracking of heads of cabbage.|
|"Coral-F1"||Ripens in 90-100 days, forming heads of cabbage weighing from 2.5 to 5 kg.||from 5 to 8.5 kg per 1 m²||High resistance to drought, heat, not affected by Fusarium|
Late ripening varieties
Varieties of late ripening are in demand as vegetable products with a long shelf life, as well as in canning.
|Amager||The technical maturity of the heads begins in 129-148 days. Fruits of high density, weighing from 2.3 to 3.6 kg.||up to 15.0 kg with m²||A variety of moderate disease resistance, but affected by vascular bacteriosis.|
|"Kolobok-F1"||Aging in 115-125 days. The shape of the heads is round. The weight of a solid head is 2-3 kg.||Yield indices of the order of 12.0 kg per 1 m²||Good resistance to mucous and vascular bacterioses, various kinds of rot, fusarium wilt.|
|"Valentine-F1"||Hybrid for long-term storage and fresh consumption. Full ripening - in 140-180 days. The weight of the head is 3.2-3.8 kg.||Up to 8.0 kg per 1 m²||Resistant to fusarium wilt.|
|"Kolobok-F1"||The ripeness of the heads comes in 145-160 days after germination. Weight 4.2 kg.||about 8.0-9.0 kg per 1 m²||Medium disease resistance.|
|"Biryuchekutskaya138"||Approximately 140-170 days to the technical maturity of the heads of cabbage. The head of cabbage is flat-rounded, weighing up to 5 kg.||about 9.0-10.0 kg per 1 m²||The variety is resistant to bacteriosis. The most heat-resistant grade.|
Despite the apparent simplicity of cultivation, this vegetable crop is quite demanding on conditions such as high-quality soil composition, the time for sowing seed material, and the correct planting scheme is important.
How to grow early cabbage
Soil density is not of particular importance. It is on the chemical or qualitative composition of the soil that the yield depends to a large extent. The best option is to use a landing area with a very fertile, enriched humus soil with a neutral pH reaction.
In addition, it is important to observe the following requirements:
- the described vegetable should be grown in open areas with good lighting;
- in the autumn, to prepare the landing area, manure, compost or peat should be applied at the rate of 4 kg per 1 m²;
- in spring, mineral, phosphorus and potash fertilizers should be applied at the rate of 36 g of superphosphate and 18 g of potassium salt or potassium chloride per 1 m²;
- Ph-acidity of the soil should be 6.5-7.5;
- fertilizer application should be accompanied by high-quality and deep digging of the soil;
- should be very careful to observe crop rotation and grow white cabbage in one area for no more than three years;
- the best predecessors for this vegetable crop are cucumbers, legumes, onions and most root crops;
- Optimum garden crops cultivated before white cabbage cannot be cabbage crops, beets, tomatoes, turnips, radishes, radishes. After growing them, you can return the culture to the ridges only after 4 years.
Particular attention should be paid to soil moisture. In addition, sowing seeds, as well as planting seedlings should not be on sandy soils.
When cultivating cabbage in a seedlingless manner, it is possible to maintain the root root of the vegetable crop, which can be located with a depth of 2 m, where it produces moisture.
When sowing in open ground, the following dates should be adhered to:
- early varieties must be sown from the last days of April to mid-May;
- late varieties must be sown in the second or third decade of May;
- medium-ripening varieties must be sown in the third decade of May or the first decade of June.
A significant part of the seedlings of summer residents are grown in film greenhouses:
- seeds of early ripe varieties should be sown in the first decade of March;
- sowing seed material of late ripening varieties follows from mid-March to mid-April;
- the latest is sown mid-ripe cabbage, sowing which is carried out from the last decade of April to mid-May.
Sowing dates may vary slightly depending on the region of cultivation, as well as weather conditions.
Growing cabbage seedlings
To get a decent crop, you should perform a number of the following activities.
- Seeds must undergo pre-sowing preparation, which consists in briefly soaking dry seeds in hot water at a temperature of 50 ° C.
- Next, the seed material is subjected to cooling and transferred for 12 hours to water with trace elements.
- After preplant treatment, the seed material is dried and sown according to standard sowing dates.
- At the stage of formation of the first pair of true leaves, the first foliar top dressing of seedlings is made with the main trace elements.
- At the beginning of hardening, a second foliar top dressing is performed. Leaves are treated with a solution based on 1 tbsp. l urea and the same amount of potassium sulfate diluted in a bucket of water. For each seedling should spend 200 g of the finished solution.
Seedlings will be ready for planting on ridges of open ground in the presence of 4-6 leaves.
High-quality seedlings of early ripe varieties should be placed with a distance of 0.35 m.The standard distance when planting late-ripe cabbage is about 0.7 m.When planting seedlings of medium-ripe cabbage, it is necessary to focus on the distance of seedlings 0.6 m from each other.
Compliance with agricultural technology is important for the formation of a plentiful crop.
Cabbage: from seedlings to harvest
With high-quality pre-planting soil preparation for sowing or planting seedlings, it is necessary to adhere to the following fertilizer application scheme:
- 14 days after planting, it is necessary to introduce urea, superphosphates and potassium salt into the soil in a ratio of 1: 2: 1.5;
- the second top dressing should be carried out at the stage of fruit formation. Urea and potassium salt should be used in a ratio of 1.5: 1.
The combination of top dressing with irrigation helps to increase the efficiency of fertilizers.
Watering rules for different periods of development
Cabbage is a very moisture-loving vegetable crop that consumes about 9 cubic meters of water per 100 kg of produce. Irrigation technology is based on the following factors:
- significant watering is necessary for the plant at the stages of formation and growth of heads of cabbage;
- when growing early cabbage in light soils and the climate of the middle zone of our country, watering should be carried out at least 5-6 times per season;
- cultivation of early ripening varieties on too heavy or dense soils involves irrigation 3-4 times per growing season.
The number of irrigations during the cultivation of mid-ripening and late-ripening varieties should be increased by 1.5 times.
Additional types of care
In addition to watering, attention should be paid to the following care measures:
- performing regular shallow loosening of soil in the aisle;
- in the process of loosening, any weeds at the site of growing cabbage should be carefully removed.
The square cultivation method using mechanical processing involves the first loosening of the soil longitudinally. After a fortnight, soil loosening should be carried out in the opposite direction.
The main diseases of cabbage
Timely detection of the disease and the competent use of the right drugs for prevention and treatment are the most important principles for obtaining a high and stable crop.
|Disease||Features||Signs of defeat||Methods of treatment and prevention|
|Kila||Most often, plants are infected in too wet soil at the stage of growing seedlings.||Plants at first slightly wither, and growths and swelling are recorded on the root system.||The diseased plant must be dug up and destroyed. The soil is disinfected with Bordeaux liquid or formalin. The next landing should be no earlier than 5 years.|
|Fusarium||Most often seedlings are affected.||Seedling material completely fades or dies. Adult plants reduce the yield and quality of heads of cabbage.||Soil treatment with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. Processing infusion of hot pepper. Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology and the cultivation of disease-resistant hybrids or varieties.|
|Blackleg||Seedlings in greenhouses are more susceptible to damage when the crops are thickened and there is insufficient lighting.||Darkening of the stalk part near the root neck, followed by thinning, which causes curvature and lodging of the stems.||Steam treatment, dressing of seed material and soil with fungicides, elimination of waterlogging, compliance with agricultural technology.|
|White and gray rot||A side effect of potassium or phosphorus deficiency, as well as neglect of storage conditions.||The appearance of weeping, mucous type spots with a characteristic plaque on a leaf plate.||Compliance with crop rotation and agricultural technology. Processing storage facilities before laying vegetable products.|
Pests and methods of dealing with them
Quite often, cabbage is affected by the most common pests for any cruciferous. The cultivated plant needs protection throughout the growing season.
|Pest||Features||Signs of defeat||Methods of treatment and prevention|
|slugs||The pest appears in the last spring month.||A pest eats a huge amount of green mass of cabbage.||The main method for destroying slugs is to collect them manually, as well as set traps.|
|fleas||Small black bugs||The appearance of numerous holes on young leaves. Massive pest damage can trigger plant death.||The use of drugs "Actellik", "Bankol", "Karate", "Decis" and "Bi-58".|
|cabbage fly||A species of short-headed Diptera from the family of flower flies, or Anthomyiidae.||When plants are damaged, the root system suffers. Cabbage lags in growth and fades. With a significant lesion, the plant dies.||Systematic weekly treatment with 5.5% DDT or 12% hexa-chloran solution.|
|cabbage moth||Type of butterflies from the family of sickle-winged moths.||An outbreak of mass propagation of cabbage moth leads to the death of young plants due to damage to central outlets.||The use of the bacterial preparations "Lepidocide", "Dendrobacilin", "Bitoxibacillin", "Dipel" and "Bactospein".|
Early ripe varieties are harvested selectively. Cutting is carried out as it ripens. To protect the heads of cabbage ready for cutting from cracking, bend them a couple of times in one direction. Mid-season and late varieties must be cut at a time. The heads of cabbage which are supposed to be kept are cut off at the latest.