Eggplant - a vegetable known for a long time, India is considered its homeland. But he came to us at the turn of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, and since then they began to grow it in the south of Russia. The climate of our places is well suited for breeding eggplant. Today we will tell you about the features of growing eggplants in the garden, as well as how to choose the right seeds, grow eggplant seedlings, which varieties are best suited for growing in the garden, and also affect the features of caring for the plant.
Eggplant grows well and develops:
- at a temperature of 25 degrees and above,
- without sharp fluctuations in temperature,
- with sufficient moisture during the formation of the fruit.
The middle lane, unfortunately, does not differ in such weather conditions. But, despite this, it can be successfully grown in a temperate climate. Only need to approach this issue competently.
You need to choose adapted seeds, that is, zoned in this area.
It is advisable to grow eggplant through seedlings. Since it takes a lot of time from the appearance of the first seedlings to the ripening of the first fruits. For early varieties, this time is almost a hundred days. And late ripe eggplants ripen in 150 days.
For sowing, it is preferable to use seeds not of the first year of storage, but of the second. Annual seeds have low germination and long germination time (up to one month). When sowing, this must be taken into account.
The term for sowing seeds depends on where the seedlings will be planted (greenhouse, greenhouse, soil). But be that as it may, the earth should warm up to a temperature of eighteen degrees. It must be calculated so that by the time the seedlings are planted, its age is about 75 days.
Preparing seeds for planting
Seeds for planting must be prepared. To do this, they are poured with a three percent solution of potassium humate for a day.
The composition of the soil in which the seeds will be sown should be as follows:
- 60% horse peat,
- 10% should be turf land,
- 20% humus
- 5% sand or sawdust,
- 5% vermicompost.
Seeds are sown in a row to a depth of 1.5 centimeters. The row is mulched with soil and slightly compacted. To prevent evaporation of moisture, the sowing is covered with a plastic film. The temperature in the room where the seeds will germinate should be at least 26 degrees.
After half emergence, the film can be removed. And also you need to increase the illumination of crops.
Usually after two weeks the seedlings are ready to dive. You can dive into pots whose capacity is not more than one liter. The first days after a dive, the air temperature must be increased to 24 degrees during the day and to 20 at night. Then the temperature can be slightly reduced, but not lower than twenty and eighteen degrees, respectively. If the temperature drops below thirteen degrees, then the seedlings may die.
After watering, it is necessary to loosen the soil to a depth of one centimeter. This reduces the rate of evaporation of moisture. Seedlings should not be poured. It’s better to shorten a bit.
When two, five, seven, and ten leaves appear, seedlings must be fed. Watering and top dressing is always best done in the morning.
Seedlings are considered ready for planting when she has ten true leaves.
Transplanting seedlings into the ground or into a greenhouse
If seedlings are planted in a greenhouse, then the soil begins to be prepared in three weeks. To do this, for each square meter is prepared, and then the mixture is introduced:
- 4 kilograms of humus,
- 15 grams of magnesium sulfate,
- 30 grams of potassium sulfate,
- 30 grams of ammonium nitrate,
- 60 grams of superphosphate
Everything mixes well. Wells are prepared before landing. To make it convenient to care for the plants, they should be planted in two rows with an aisle from 0.9 to 1 meter. In a row is a distance of 0.4 meters. That is, the planting scheme is such that no more than three plants are placed in one square meter of area.
Before planting seedlings, it must be hardened. That is, gradually accustom to lower temperatures and direct solar radiation. In this case, the seedlings will not get burns and take root faster. If this is not done, then the seedlings may disappear. Since, due to an insufficiently developed root system, eggplant is difficult to take root during a transplant.
Seedlings are removed from the container where it was grown, while maintaining a lump of earth. Depth of landing is 8 centimeters. The root neck should go into the ground by one and a half centimeters.
If the lump on the roots is fragile, then to strengthen it, you can cook a mash of clay and mullein. And, as necessary, lower the roots there.
In order not to have such problems, it is better to grow seedlings in pots. Such seedlings will take root more quickly, the fruits will ripen earlier, and will give a larger crop.
After planting, you need to create a shadow for the seedlings until it gets used to the sunlight. And it would be nice to spray the soil. This will increase the humidity in the greenhouse, which eggplants love so much.
How to grow eggplant - video
Care for planted eggplant
All care for planted eggplant consists of a triune task. I.e:
- in timely top dressing,
- in the correct watering of the plant,
- in the implementation of the formation of the bush.
First held in May. Under each bush, pour up to 300 milliliters of nutrient solution. Then in the summer. During this period, the dose of the nutrient solution is increased. It should already reach 500 milliliters.
When feeding, make sure that the fertilizer does not fall on the leaves. Otherwise, it can cause a plant burn. Therefore, after top dressing, be sure to water the bushes.
Eggplants are not only heat-loving plants, but also water-loving. Properly water them twice every seven days. Of course, if the summer is hot, then watering should be increased. Maybe even watering every other day.
Do not allow a crust to form after watering. Be sure to loosen the plant.
In the period of growth, eggplant spud twice. But this must be done carefully. Since they have poorly restored damaged roots.
If eggplant is grown in a greenhouse, then their height can reach one and a half meters. For such tall plants, bush formation is necessary.
The bush is formed so that it has no more than three skeletal shoots. They are best tied to a trellis. Especially if it is eggplant with unlimited stem growth (indeterminate varieties).
To accelerate the ripening of fruits, it is necessary to pinch the top of the bush. Early ripening standard varieties, on which no more than eight fruits ripen, can not be formed.
When a plant blooms, you need to select the largest one in the group of flowers, and cut off the rest. For better fruit setting, sometimes shake the bush or trellis. So flowers are better pollinated.
Also, after the formation of eight fruits, you need to remove the side shoots. Constantly clean all yellowed leaves on the plant.
Varieties of eggplant
At the moment, there are really a large number of eggplant varieties that can be grown in greenhouses and open ground, and some of them we will consider right now:
- Albatross. Mid-season variety, which has always been distinguished by good productivity. The bush reaches 50 cm in height, the fruits are pear-shaped. Their color is blue-violet, and the mass is about 400-450 g;
- Black Moon. A fairly unpretentious eggplant variety, the fruit ovary of which can occur even at low temperatures. The fruits of this variety have a rounded shape, in diameter 17-18 cm;
- Nautilus. A wonderful variety with saber and dark purple fruits, which reach a mass of 500 g. It belongs to the middle early and is great for growing in greenhouses and greenhouses;
- Arap. A fairly tall variety of eggplant, if you count by the standards for open ground. The height of the bush is about 90-100 cm, the length of the fruit is up to 25 cm. An attractive variety with a beautiful color and glare differs in productivity above the average level;
- Handsome black man. The result of European selection, which is distinguished by a beautiful color and hardness of the fruit. But, the fruits themselves are small, cylindrical in shape, weighing only 200-240 g. The black handsome is considered an early ripe variety;
- Maria. A variety with small fruits of elongated shape, whose weight reaches 200-220 g. Variety Maria differs from others in its beautiful and uniform dark purple color, as well as in the high early maturity of the fruits, which compensates for their size;
- Barbentane. Refers to early ripe eggplants, whose fruits have a nice glow and dark purple color. The variety is characterized by high productivity, as it has a long fruiting period;
- Valentine. The eggplant variety with a standard fruit size is 5x26 cm. Also, the fruits are standardly elongated and purplish-black in color. Strong and resistant plant with increased fruiting;
- Delicacy. Early ripening, undersized variety with small fruits of dark purple color. The mass of each is not more than 100 g, but the amount on the bush is about 10 pieces;
- Epic. Early ripe eggplants, distinguished by truly original fruits - drop-shaped, dark purple, 10x22 cm in size. The variety is resistant, strong, unpretentious, with high productivity;
- Donetsk fruitful. Early ripe eggplant with dark colored fruits, whose length reaches 13-15 cm, diameter - 4 cm, and weight 140-160 g. Each bush of this variety can contain up to 15 full-fledged fruits;
- Donskoy. Srednerosly and srednerskidny variety with pear-shaped fruits, weighing up to 160-180 g. Productivity of the variety is average - about 3.5 kg per square meter of planting;
- Solara. Early ripe eggplant variety with a very high yield and indicative unpretentiousness. Fruits - dark purple, weighing up to 900-1000 g;
- Golden egg. This variety belongs to early ripening hybrids and bears average fruits in the form of a goose egg. Most often, the Golden Egg variety is used in cottages and gardens as an ornamental plant;
- Black Beauty - Black Beauty. A high-yielding, early ripe eggplant variety whose fruits are quite large - about 900 g by weight. Fruit ovary occurs even under adverse conditions.
Considering these varieties of eggplant, as well as dozens of varieties that are not included in our description, you should definitely pay attention to the many nuances that are important when growing. Among them, the whimsicalness of the variety, the requirements of the soil, places for cultivation, open ground or greenhouse, watering regimes, top dressing and so on. Only by accurately studying the requirements of the variety and determining it under the existing growing conditions, providing sufficient care and the right amount of attention, you can get a good harvest.
The best stage of fruiting is the phase of technical ripeness. That is, when the fruit sizes correspond to varietal parameters, the seeds are still underdeveloped, the pulp is juicy and easily cut with a knife. During ripening, they must be picked at least every week.
Thus, eggplant is a rather troublesome plant that requires attention. That is, he requires that gardeners constantly monitor his needs, and satisfy them as necessary.
And this means that:
- observed the temperature regime at all stages of its development,
- at the right times fed and watered,
- rid of excess flowers and shoots,
- harvested in a timely manner.
Only by fulfilling all these rules, you can count on the fact that our work will not be wasted.