Cosmea, from the Latin Cósmos, is an annual and perennial herbaceous plant from the Astrovian or Asteraceae family. This very elegant and unpretentious plant forms simple, but very attractive flowers of white, pink, red or purple color, which allows you to widely use the flower "cosmos" as a decorative garden culture.
Description and characteristic
The name cosmea comes from the Greek word "cosmos", which in translation into Russian means "decoration". Perennial flowering culture has established itself as an ornamental plant.
- the height of the ornamental plant, depending on the species and variety, can vary between 0.5-1.5 m;
- the stem part is thin and flexible, erect, with sufficient branching;
- leaves oppositely arranged, with double dissection, openwork type, very elegant;
- inflorescences are represented by baskets similar to a camomile flower;
- flowers are located singly or collected in a relatively loose, corymbose type, paniculate inflorescences;
- flowers are most often simple, but varieties with semi-double and double inflorescences are also found;
- the average diameter of a fully opened flower is about 10-12 cm;
- the middle part of the flower is small, tubular, yellowish;
- reed flowers of large sizes, may have purple, pink, red, white or golden yellow staining;
- the fruits are dark yellow, gray or brown achenes.
Seeds are able to maintain germination for two to three years, which must be considered when acquiring and sowing seed material. Cold-resistant, light-loving and drought-resistant culture can bloom from the first summer days until the onset of significant cooling.
Cosmea: growing from seeds
Cosmea is a cold-resistant and relatively drought-resistant plant. Important to rememberthat this decorative culture is very photophilous and grows best in an open and sunny area, protected from gusty winds. Under shading conditions, the vegetative mass prevails over the number of flowers formed.
Landing features are as follows:
- cosmea, although a plant absolutely undemanding to soil indicators, nevertheless, develops best and blooms on loose, relatively nutritious soil;
- You can’t plant a crop on excessively fertilized and fertile soils that are too rich in nutrients - this often causes overly active growth of the vegetative mass to the detriment of flowering;
- planting seedlings of this decorative culture should be approximately in the first decade of June, when return frosts are completely over and flower seedlings grow to a height of six to seven centimeters;
- in order to properly plant flower seedlings, it is necessary in advance, approximately in the middle of May or early June, to prepare the planting holes, arranging them according to the scheme 30 x 30 cm or 35 x 35 cm;
- planting is done in the evening, after preliminary abundant soil moistening in the planting holes.
Thus, the areas represented by loose and well-drained soils are ideally suited for planting and growing cosmeas. It should be noted that almost all varieties of cosmea have such a dignity as stable immunity, which implies the absence of the risk of damage to many diseases and damage by insect pests.
According to reviews by both experienced and novice gardeners, cosmea is one of the most unpretentious and very undemanding crops to care for. To obtain long and abundant flowering, you must adhere to the basic agricultural rules:
- irrigation measures should be carried out quite rarely, but plentifully, using about 3-4 liters of warm water for each flowering plant;
- watering should be carried out after sunset, in the evening, avoiding water drops falling on foliage and flowers;
- it is advisable to remove wilted inflorescences in a timely manner;
- flower plantings should be fed before the budding phase, at the stage of bud formation and at the very beginning of the mass flowering of a decorative culture.
Prevention of diseases and pests can be carried out by treating the aerial parts of the plant with folk remedies based on natural fungicides.
The main types
In total, there are at least forty species of cosmea, of which only a few are well adapted for cultivation on the territory of our country in open ground. Many varieties give abundant self-seeding, due to which they are very capable of reproducing not only in natural but also in cultural conditions. Regardless of the species, cosmea is extremely rarely affected by diseases and is practically not damaged by plant parasites.
Currently, relatively low-growing species, which are very convenient in the design of garden decor, are most widely used.
|View name||Latin name||Height||Flowers||Species features|
|Cosmea twice-feathered||C. bipinnatus cav.||Up to 1.2 m||Diameter up to 100 mm. Reed flowers are white, pink or red, and tubular flowers have a bright yellow color||Tall species with a branched stem and openwork, double-ply, dissected leaves|
|Cosmea sulfur yellow||C. sulphureus cav.||Up to 80 cm||Inflorescences in diameter do not exceed 60 mm and have a golden yellow or orange color||More heat-loving and undersized species with chamomile inflorescences|
|Cosmea black or blood red||C. atrosanguineus||Up to a meter||Dark, pronouncedly red staining flowers that persist until the frost||Suitable for cultivation in the southern regions of our country, due to the low level of cold resistance|
The best and most popular varieties
Among the most common in our country are annual cosmeas, forming simple flowers and characterized by unpretentiousness in choosing a site for planting and undemanding care.
|Grade name||Plant description||Flower characteristic||Varietal Features|
|"Shell"||Openwork type strongly dissected leaves, the height of the bush is not more than 0.9 m||Inflorescences in baskets with a diameter of up to 100 mm. The main part of the flower is white, pink, carmine color, and the central part is yellow||Reed flowers fold into a tube|
|"Sensation"||Openwork type, with a strong dissection of leaves, plant height up to 90 cm||Diameter up to 100 mm. Reed flowers pink or carmine staining, and the central part of the inflorescence is yellow||Cold resistant and very popular variety|
|"Picoti"||Lush bush up to 80 cm high with delicate leaves||White-stained flowers, up to 10 cm in diameter, with carmine-red bordering of different intensities||Flowering is long and very plentiful, starting from mid-summer until the onset of frost|
|Sunny Orange||No more than 30 cm high, with erect, branched, pubescent stems||Inflorescences characteristic orange staining, diameter up to 60 mm||Used in group plantings and for cutting|
|"Yakhont red"||Bush with dense, dark green, openwork foliage, a height of not more than 65-85 cm||Ruby or bright red, with a diameter of not more than 70 mm||Early entry into flowering and brightly colored petals|
Relatively recently appeared varieties of cosmea with double flowers, which, in addition to species unpretentiousness and high resistance to adverse external factors, have very high decorative properties. Terry cosmea goes well with almost any annual and perennial decorative cultures.
|Grade name||Plant description||Flower characteristic||Using|
|Terry Button||With openwork and highly dissected leaves, up to 1.2 m high||Terry and semi-double type, various staining, collected in inflorescences-baskets||Decoration of flower beds, decoration of fencing and cutting|
|"Terry button Burgundy"||With openwork and highly dissected leaves, up to 0.8 m high||Terry baskets of claret coloring with a diameter up to 7-10 cm||Landing at clubs and as a border decoration|
|"Two-color Terry Button"||Lush bushes with leaves with a strong cut, a height of not more than 80 cm||Pinkish-white staining, terry, diameter 7 cm||Demanding and very decorative cutting grade|
|"Psyche"||With dark green openwork foliage, a height of not more than 80 cm||White, pinkish and pronounced carmine staining of terry-type inflorescences||Very popular terry cut variety|
|"Psyche White"||Lush bush with bright green leaves with a strong dissection, a height of not more than 80 cm||White and terry-type lush inflorescences with a diameter of not more than 100 mm||Cold-resistant and photophilous grade|
|Rose Bonbon||A powerful and well-developed bush reaches 1.2-1.3 m in height||Terry and semi-double type baskets with a diameter of up to 10 cm||As a basic plan of the flower garden, fencing and pruning|
Features of growing from seeds
Reproduction is carried out by seeds. The main seed collection is carried out after the full ripening of the seeds.
The technology of seed propagation is as follows:
- sowing for seedlings and sowing directly to a permanent place of cultivation is allowed;
- sowing in order to obtain seedlings at room conditions should be carried out in March-April;
- the seeds can not be sprinkled with soil, it is enough to accurately distribute on the surface of moistened soil and cover with polyethylene;
- before the emergence of seedlings it is recommended to provide crops with a temperature regime of 16-18 ° C;
- subject to the technology of sowing and growing, mass shoots of decorative culture appear in about one to two weeks;
- flower seedlings, reaching a height of 8-10 cm, must be planted in a permanent place after the threat of late spring frosts has passed.
Overgrowing of seedlings should not be allowed, since too elongated plants can hardly tolerate the transplant procedure.
Use cases in landscaping
Most often, double-feathered kosmey of varieties "Dazzler" and "Purity" is grown in culture, as well as a low-growing variety "Sonata Pink Blush", which goes well with most annuals and serves as an excellent addition to the design of the fence and border.
Decorative culture has found wide application in the design of a personal landscape and is planted on flowerbeds, and is also used in groups, mixborders, and garden design in a rustic style. In recent years, lawns in the style of nature garden are very popular. The best complement for cosmeas are marigolds, stunted phloxes, garden daisies, as well as almost any variegated summers.