Anemones, or anemones, are very light and therefore charming plants that give lightness and airiness to any part of the garden in which they are planted. In culture, there are many types of anemones, no more than five of which are decorative. The rest are cultivated wild flowers. It is in their pristine beauty that lies the true charm that is missing from artificially created hybrids. Meanwhile, even varietal representatives of anemones have the same zest that can be advantageously used when designing a flower garden.
Anemones belong to perennial grassy cultures of the same genus of the Lyutikov family. They are found everywhere and feel good both in the northern and southern climatic zones. Translated from Greek Anemones means "daughter of the winds", and this is no accident, because plants of this genus perfectly tolerate wind loads: at the slightest blow, their stems swing, and the petals begin to tremble. In Russia, anemones are called anemones.
About 150 species of anemones are found in nature, which differ in the height of the curtains, the shape and size of the leaf blades, as well as in the number of flowers on each peduncle. The shape of the flower, a bisexual radially symmetric basket with elongated petals, unites representatives of the genus. In appearance, they resemble a large daisy with slightly rounded petals, but are painted more cheerfully. White anemones are rare, but red, yellow, blue, purple and even green flowers of all shades are quite common. The root system of most anemones is creeping rhizomes or bulbs, and very rarely, thin fibrous roots.
Types of Anemones
In a culture of one and a half hundred species of anemones, no more than a dozen are widely used. These include the inhabitants of almost all natural and climatic zones, the flowering of which occurs at different times.
The following types are considered the most common:
- Gentle anemone - Anemone native to the Caucasus, the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor. The species is represented by low plants up to 20 cm high, crowned with single chamomile flowers up to 7 cm in diameter. This species is distinguished by the elegant shape of the leaves and very thin peduncles, making the bush look airy and light. In nature, the flowers of the representative of this species are painted mainly in purple shades, and in the culture there are varieties of white, cream, pink and blue.
- Buttercup Anemone - An inhabitant of Eurasian forests, growing up to 25 cm in height. Unlike other anemones, this species has a nice “collar” of palmately dissected leaves at the base of the inflorescence. In nature, flowers of buttercup anemone are colored yellow and do not exceed a diameter of 3 cm. Cultivated varieties with double and simple flowers of yellow and purple are bred.
- Blue anemone - Anemones come from the Sayan Mountains and Western Siberia. The plant forms sparse clumps, growing in diameter up to half a meter, and a height of not more than 20 cm. At the end of thin peduncles, in addition to a simple white or blue flower with a diameter of not more than 2.5 cm, there is a “collar” of dissected leaves.
- Oak anemone - An inhabitant of bright European forests and edges, growing up to 25-30 cm in height. The appearance of the plant is thin jackets with airy leaves and flowers about 4 cm in diameter. The color of the petals in this species can be either light (white, pink, cream or greenish), or saturated (lilac, blue, purple). In culture, this species is represented by three dozen varieties with simple and double flowers-baskets.
- Forest Anemone - a species widespread throughout Europe, Siberia and the Caucasus, the foothills of the Crimea. The leaf rosette of these flowers grows up to 20 cm in height, and flower stalks - up to 35 cm. From their ends blooms from one to three snow-white flowers with a diameter of up to 6 cm. Anemone forest is one of the first plants of the anemone genus introduced into the culture.
- Crown Anemone - a plant that can be found in nature in the Mediterranean region and in Asia Minor. Peduncles of this species reach 40 cm in height, and their tops are decorated with very large inflorescences, the diameter of which reaches 10 cm. In nature, crown anemones are the richest in color representatives of a kind. The color of their petals varies from snow-white to ink-blue and purple.
- Japanese anemone - the highest representative of anemones, growing up to 90 cm tall and blooming in late summer, and not early in spring. The flowers are small, towering above curtains of airy leaves on thin, almost weightless peduncles. The color of the petals is very diverse, but in the culture varieties with petals of red and pink shades are more common.
Several hundred varieties have been created on the basis of the listed types of anemones, many of which adorn the parks and gardens of lovers of natural primroses in spring. They are not inferior in beauty to such garden design mastodons as tulips, roses and phloxes, and bring a special spirit of the wild forest, or rather, its outskirts and forest glades, to the design of the site.
Anemones: Landing and Care
Varieties of anemones
Almost all types of anemones are suitable for growing in the garden, which are represented in the culture by dozens of varieties with a very beautiful color and flower shape. The following varieties of anemones are considered the most popular:
|Grade name||Belonging to the species||Flower description|
|Blue Shade||Gentle anemones||Blue simple flowers with a diameter of about 5-8 cm|
|Pink Star||Gentle anemones||Lavender-pink inflorescences with a diameter of about 7 cm|
|Radar||Gentle anemones||Very attractive large flowers of purple or red with a snow-white center|
|Admiral||Crown anemones||Terry flowers of beautiful raspberry-violet color|
|Mr. Fokker||Crown anemones||Lilac or violet-blue semi-double large flowers|
|Bicolor||Crown anemones||Semi-double white daisy with raspberry edge up to 7 cm in diameter|
|Vestal||Oak anemones||Snow-white, very large terry inflorescences|
|Lucy's Wood||Anemone Dubravna (European grade)||White flowers with a light violet bloom|
|Sioux||Anemones Lipsensis||Flowers are warm creamy color, semi-double or simple, medium size|
|Radiance (Splendens)||Japanese Anemones||Red large simple inflorescences|
|September Charm||Japanese Anemones||Very beautiful small pink inflorescences|
Hybrid forms of anemones are considered equally beautiful, which are represented by mixtures of flowers, shapes and shades of foliage and inflorescences. So, the most widespread hybrid varieties Richard Arain, Queen Charlotte, Margaret, Honorine Jobert. Almost all of these varieties are characterized by high growth of bushes and incredibly large flowers blooming closer to autumn.
The use of anemones in landscape design
Anemone is a very gentle and unobtrusive garden resident, which is often used in landscape design to decorate the lower tiers of coniferous, evergreen and deciduous shrub compositions. Anemones go well with various plants, and are also used to make bouquets.
You can combine this plant with many types of perennials and annuals:
- blue, oak and buttercup anemone is good in group plantings and massifs near shrubs and planted along garden paths laid between shrubs and trees;
- crowned, Caucasian and tender anemone - a wonderful neighbor for spring primroses, such as primrose, scyllus and muscari;
- Japanese anemones complement their modest and discreet beauty with the splendor of peonies, phloxes and other overall perennials.
Small anemones are good on alpine slides, in groups with mosses and other creeping ornamental deciduous crops. Larger anemones can be planted in the flower garden of any design and purpose, even where large trees are located nearby. Such a neighborhood does not harm the plant in any way, because in nature they prefer to settle in the vicinity of forests and under bushes.
Choosing a Place for Anemones
Almost all anemones, except Japanese and hybrid ones, begin to bloom in early spring, even before buds open on trees and shrubs. That is why they can and should be planted in near-stem circles of large and compact shrubs and trees. It will not bring harm to them from the lack of sun in the summer. However, one still needs to pay attention to the type of anemone, because some of these plants like to bask in direct sunlight and can hardly tolerate even slight shading. Such sun-loving species include anemones native to the Mediterranean - crowned and tender.
The soil for anemones should be slightly acidic or neutral, with a high content of lime and humus. Humidity should be constant, almost like in a wild forest, in which the upper layers of the soil almost never dry out.
Planting and transplanting anemones, reproduction
The best time for planting and transplanting anemones is the middle of the summer season, when spring-flowering species and varieties have ended flowering, and the leaves have remained green. A transplant is allowed at the very beginning of spring, when the buds on the anemones have not yet blossomed. Autumn landing of anemones is the least successful, since the survival rate of rhizomes in this case is reduced by at least half.
In order to transplant plants to a new place, it is enough to dig up whole tubers, rhizomes or bushes from the ground (with their subsequent separation). In a new place, it is enough to loosen the soil to a depth of about 15 cm, and planting material is placed at a depth of not more than 10 cm from the surface. Oak and rock anemone is planted to such a depth that the root neck of the plants is not lower than the soil level, but does not protrude to its surface by more than 1 cm.
If necessary, get young plants from faded anemones to collect seeds. It does not make sense to store them, since in seeds that did not fall into the soil at the time of ripening, germination drops sharply. In nature, anemones breed mainly self-seeding, and for the formation of normal germplants, seedlings they need 2-3 years. The specimens obtained from the seeds often differ from the parental ones.
That is why anemones after flowering are released from ripened seeds, which are immediately sown next to the mother plants or in boxes with fertile soil. They are immediately dug in the shade of trees and shrubs, and covered with cut leaves or spruce branches. Boxes are moistened during the summer, and left in the autumn there, pouring more snow on them.
Regular temperature changes throughout the year are the key to increasing the germination capacity of anemone seeds. No need to try to insulate schools with seeds of anemones, and even more so you should not put them for winter in cellars or greenhouses!
In soil open to the spring sun, planting should be watered 3-4 times a week. Otherwise, the anemones may dry and die. To protect them from potential drying out, you can mulch the plantings with half-ripe leaves or needles from conifers. The first option is preferable, since the needles can affect the acidity of the soil, increasing it, and anemones, as mentioned above, do not like acidic soils.
Important! The anemone, whose roots are tubers or thickened rhizomes, the underground part does not tolerate stagnation of water. When planting crown, tender and Caucasian anemones, it is better to equip the flower garden with good drainage, and add sand to the soil.
The role of fertilizer for anemones of all types and varieties is played by imitation of forest litter, which is abundantly applied to the soil surface in the fall. Its composition includes leaves of broad-leaved crops - oak, apple, linden and maples. Besides, you can throw a thin layer of well-laid manure. If anemones are grown for cutting, it is allowed at the time of formation of the buds to introduce complex mineral fertilizers for flowering plants into the soil for irrigation.
In general, growing and caring for anemones is easy and simple. The only thing that lovers of these modest representatives of the flora need to provide is preparation for winter. Since in nature anemones hibernate under a thick layer of foliage that accumulates in abundance under trees and bushes, they need to create similar conditions in the garden. To do this, on places where winter-hardy anemones grow, they sprinkle more leaves and dry grass, and in spring, with the beginning of snow melting, the shelter is gradually removed.
How to plant anemone seeds
Particular preparation for the winter is required for thermophilic anemones with tuberous roots - tender, apennine and Caucasian. In the conditions of northern latitudes, their care is supplemented by the preservation of tubers until spring in the basement. To do this, after flowering, the bushes are dug up completely, thoroughly cleaned of impurities and put tubers in boxes for drying. The temperature should be maintained at the level of 23-25 degrees. Until autumn, planting material is stored at a temperature not exceeding 15 degrees, and in October they are transferred to a basement with an air temperature not exceeding +3 degrees. Before planting in open ground, such tubers need to be placed in water for a day.