Fertilizer of the soil is engaged in by every owner of a summer cottage who wants to get a crop from crops. What are the fertilizers, the norms of their application and methods of fertilizing the soil, we have already considered in our previous articles. Today we want to pay attention to the effect of fertilizers on plants and humans.
Indeed, why are fertilizers needed and how do they affect certain growth indicators of crops, and indeed on the person himself? We will answer these questions right now.
Such topics are often raised at the global level, because the conversation does not go about a small piece of land, but about industrial-scale fields to satisfy the needs of a whole region or even a country. It is clear that the number of fields for crops is constantly growing, and each field that has been processed once, forever becomes a platform for growing certain plants. Accordingly, the land is depleted, and every year the yield is significantly reduced. This leads to costs, and sometimes to bankruptcy of enterprises, hunger, deficits. The primary reason for this is the lack of nutrients in the soil, which we have long been compensating for with special fertilizers. Of course, to give an example of multi-hectare fields is not entirely correct, but the results can be counted on the area of our summer cottages, because everything is proportional.
So, fertilizing the soil. Of course, it is absolutely necessary, whether it is a garden with fruit trees, a vegetable garden, or a flower bed with ornamental plants and flowers. You may not need to fertilize the soil, but you yourself will soon notice the quality of plants and fruits on a constant, depleted soil. Therefore, we recommend that you do not save on high-quality fertilizers and systematically flatter the earth with them.
Why fertilizers are needed
Fertilizer application rates
We are used to using mainly organic fertilizers, but their quantity is limited. What to do in this case? Of course, turn to chemistry for help, and fertilize the site with mineral fertilizers, which, fortunately, do not end here. But, with this type of fertilizer, you should be more careful, as they have an increased impact on soil quality for plants, on humans and the environment. The right amount will surely supply the soil with nutrients that will soon be “delivered” to the plants and help increase crop yields. At the same time, mineral fertilizers normalize the required amount of substances in the soil and maximize its fertility. But, this is only if the fertilizer dose, application time and other parameters are performed correctly. If not, the effect of nitrogen fertilizers, phosphate and potassium fertilizers on the soil may not be very positive. Therefore, before applying such fertilizers, try not only to study the norms and parameters of applying them to the soil, but also to choose high-quality mineral fertilizers, the safety of which has passed the control of the manufacturer and special organs.
The effect of organic fertilizers on the content of trace elements in the soil
The effect of fertilizers on plants
With the help of practical research, scientists have established how certain fertilizers affect plants. Now, according to external indicators, you can understand how correct the dosage of fertilizers waswhether there was an oversupply or lack of them:
- Nitrogen. If there is too little fertilizer in the soil, then the plants look pale and painful, have a light green color, grow very slowly and die prematurely from yellowing, dryness and falling of leaves. An excess of nitrogen leads to a delay in flowering and ripening, excessive development of stems and a change in the color of the plant to dark green;
- Phosphorus. The lack of phosphorus in the soil leads to growth retardation and slow ripening of the fruit, the color of the leaves of the plant changes to dark green with a certain bluish tint, and lightens or gray at the edges. If there is a lot of phosphorus in the soil, then the plant will develop too quickly, because of which it can go to the growth of the stem and leaves, but the fruits at this time will be small and in small quantities;
- Potassium. A lack of potassium will provide the plant with a delayed development, yellowing of the leaves, their wrinkling, twisting and partial death. Excess potassium closes the path of nitrogen supply to the plant, which can significantly affect the development of plants of any culture;
- Calcium. Low potassium intake will damage the apical kidneys as well as the root system. If there is enough potassium, then no changes should follow.
With the rest of the elements, everything is a little different, that is, the plants will only respond to their lack of soil. So:
- Magnesium. Slowed growth, and possibly its stop, lightening of the plant, yellowing, and possibly reddening and acquiring a purple hue in the area of leaf veins;
- Iron. Delayed growth and development, as well as leaf chlorosis - light green, sometimes almost white color;
- Copper. Chlorosis of leaves, increased bushiness of the plant, discoloration is possible;
- Boron. Lack of boron causes the death of apical kidneys in the process of decay.
It is worth noting the fact that often not the lack of fertilizers itself makes the plants changed externally, namely weakening of the plant and diseases that can be due to a lack of fertilizers. But, as you see, negative consequences are also possible from an overabundance of fertilizers.
The effect of fertilizer on the quality and condition of the fruit
The effect of fertilizers on humans
An excess of nutrients in the soil, due to improper fertilizer, can become dangerous for humans. Many chemical elements, entering the plant through biological processes, are transformed into toxic elements, or contribute to their production. Many plants initially have similar substances in themselves, but their doses are negligible and in no way affect the healthy life of a person. This is characteristic of many popular plants that we eat: dill, beets, parsley, cabbage and so on.
According to this, we can once again approach the issue of the correctness of the technology of fertilizing the soil. Only if all the rules and regulations are observed, you can get a good harvest and not worry about your own health. We recommend learning how to increase soil fertility.