We have already talked about grapes, more precisely - pruning a plant, but this is far from the only method of caring for a beautiful shrub with sweet fruits. Let's continue the conversation and try to get to know better the ways to increase the yield, the proper care of the crop, and also consider the special vineyard calendar created by specialists.
From early spring to late autumn, grapes develop, fill with juices, throw out clusters of berries and keep up to bring us pleasure and enjoy the taste of wonderful fruits. But it also happens that a delicious and high-quality grape grows in poor conditions, without care, proper pruning, watering, fertilizing and warming for the winter period. To achieve a good and juicy crop, you must follow hundreds of rules that are simply impossible to remember from one time. That is why we will gradually remind you of how to properly care for the culture. To begin with, I would like to consider the year-round care calendar, which was compiled by specialists.
Grape Care Schedule
Harvest all the necessary fertilizers for grapes in advance: wood ash, compost, humus, and mineral fertilizers - “Novofert”, “Master” and others. Do not forget that in the spring it will be necessary to treat the plant with drugs from diseases and pests. During this period, the condition of the grape seedlings should be checked: if they are too dry, moisten a little; if they are too wet, slightly open and ventilate. If the weather in January is warm, you can cut off non-covering varieties, and in cold weather cover the already warmed vineyard with snow.
You can begin preparations for the warm season: to clean the arches and stretches from the old vine, prepare tools and fertilizers, recall the shortcomings of last year and make every effort to avoid them again. At room conditions, you can begin to grow seedlings and check the planting material in the store.
During this period, pruning of non-covering varieties should be completed in order to avoid large juice separation. Start picking new seedlings for planting, determine their location on the territory of your site. Such places should be carefully prepared.
Shelter varieties should be opened at the beginning of the month only if frost is not expected. This applies only to shelters on loams and chernozems: bushes covered with needles, sawdust or peat, open before the eyes swell. Now you can bring organic matter to the planting sites, carry out water-charging irrigation of grapes and make liquid top dressing. Also, spraying with pests and diseases should be carried out (grapes in the spring are very weak in front of them). Processing should be carried out at a temperature not lower than + 4-5 ° C. In the second half of the month, when the temperature rises, you can make a garter. Sleeves should be tied obliquely, young shoots - horizontally. At the same time, you can begin to plant mature seedlings in the ground.
The beginning of May is the period when it is necessary to start green work. The first fragment of the extra shoots of grapes is carried out immediately after budding. Unnecessary buds should be removed from perennial parts of the grape bush, excess twins and tees on fruit shoots, leaving only the most developed. The next fragment is carried out when the shoots reach growth of 15 cm, the third - with the growth of shoots of 35-40 cm. Also in May, you need to remove all excess aerial overgrowth, which was formed from the rhizome and begin processing fungi with grapes. If last year was “clean” from diseases and they are not outlined now, you can skip treatment.
Gradually continue to tie up the shoots as they grow, transfer the shoots to the wire of the arch higher and higher, make uniform garters along the wire. Do not forget to remove stepsons on the shoots. 10 days before flowering, you can spend another liquid dressing. During flowering, remove the upper (2nd, 3rd, 4th) inflorescences to regulate the load on the vine bush.
Toward the end of May, weaker seedlings, green vegetative plants, can be planted in the soil in holes that were previously prepared and fertilized. At this stage, perhaps, you can finish the spring grape care and go to summer.
You can continue the planting of young and insufficiently strong seedlings. It is also required to pinch the buds on vigorous shoots - this will give a certain bonus during pollination. Before flowering, it is necessary to fertilize with elements that enhance flowering and budding; You can use complex mineral elements. At this time, it is better to treat the grape bushes with fungicides once again, since the defeat during the flowering period is the most dangerous. Continue the garter, carry out the stepsoning, after flowering, carry out foliar top dressing. Try to remove extra clusters in order to normalize the crop; extra clusters should not be regretted at all. At that moment, when the berries grow to the size of a cherry stone, spray the following fungicides - “Topaz” and “Ridomil Gold”.
From the very beginning of the month, it is important to start protecting the bushes from fungal diseases. For this, systemic drugs are used (in rainy weather - 2 times a month). An effective remedy may be Flint. During the pouring of berries, grapes should be fed with special preparations containing potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen, for the best effect, foliar top dressing with Novofert or Aquarin preparations.
Do not forget about feeding young seedlings that have recently been planted in open ground. Care for young grapes is also relevant. For this process, you will need mineral fertilizers (25 g per 10 liters of water). Pay attention to the growth of grapes, tie it and remove stepsons. Early varieties may begin to ripen at the end of the month.
Remember: grape care in the summer is very important, so try to follow all the rules, because fruit ripening is happening right now and there is every chance to get a good harvest.
At the beginning of the month, not forgetting the constant green operations to garter and remove the stepsons, feed the grapes with mineral fertilizers, and the new, young, with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Do not use nitrogen in the first or second case. Now you can still irrigate if you see that the plant needs moisture, but they must be stopped from the second half of August. With weak ripening, you can again apply fertilizing to the soil - the plantafol or potassium monophosphate. Also process grapes from pests and diseases, use “Quadris” (a drug that copes well with oidium and mildew). At this time, it is time to ripen early varieties.
In September, mid-ripening grape varieties carry out all the same work as in early grape varieties in August. Do not forget to regulate the overload of bushes with a cut of extra clusters (first of all, all the nutrients that fall into the bush must go to the ripening of the fruit and ripening of the vine). Repeat phosphorus-potassium top dressing. If diseases occur, treat the grapes with the preparations mentioned earlier.
Harvesting is nearing completion. Immediately after that, if the bushes were affected by pests and diseases, they are again treated with drugs. At this time, strong seedlings from the school are planted in the ground, now they are well rooted. Young bushes should be covered with needles or peat. After harvesting, the old cuttings are cut from the old bushes, and the covering vine is laid in grooves in an inclined state. Excess vine, residual plant material is dried and burned. Do not use this material in compost in order to avoid a possible infection. The soil in the aisles is dug up. If the last months were dry, watering should be carried out (40-60 liters of water for each bush).
Autumn grape care is important no less than summer. During this period, you should thoroughly prepare for wintering, so as not to lose fruiting bushes and young, rooted cuttings planted during the current season. Now you need to finish work on pruning cover varieties. Also, before freezing the soil should properly cover the bushes. For this, vine, needles, sawdust, peat, and land previously bent and grooved are used. Do not forget to make water-loading irrigation - grapes do not winter well without moisture. Now that the sheltering work is completed and the vineyard is ready for winter, you can do the cleaning and arch cleaning, repair and updating of the tool.
In December, all grape care consists of the same basic criteria as in January: preparation of fertilizers for the season, purchase of drugs and products, preparation of the landing site, humidity control and so on.
According to experts, if you follow this calendar, try to feed and trim on time, closely monitor the growth of seedlings and generally ensure proper grape care, then the yield from each bush will be significant.
How to care for grapes: bush formation (video)
How to make proper watering of a vineyard
Grapes belong to those plants for the irrigation of which a special schedule has been drawn up, that is, you can’t water the plant when you like, if you want to get a crop from a strong and “live” bush. For example, in industrial vineyards, watering is carried out up to nine times per season with an interval between waterings of 15 days. In home vineyards, watering should be carried out only at peak demand.
First watering carried out immediately after a dry garter, it is advised to combine it with fertilizing the soil with ammonium nitrate. At this point, the soil has not yet warmed up, and plants may experience nitrogen hunger.
Second watering carried out after trimming, within 5-7 days.
Third watering it is advisable to carry out at that moment when the shoots grow to 25-30 cm. During the growth period, moisture is necessary. Also feeding will not hurt.
Fourth watering Mandatory before flowering (not at the beginning and not during flowering), otherwise without moisture clusters will be rare. We add together with watering microelements, superphosphate, potassium sulfate, zinc salts and magbor.
Fifth watering occurs at a time when the berries of the clusters reach the size of a pea - due to timely watering, the berries will grow.
Sixth - softening of berries. A lack of moisture during this period can lead to a long delay in the ripening of the crop. We feed grapes with infusion of ash, superphosphate and potassium sulfate.
Seventh - after harvesting. This watering requires the addition of superphosphate.
Subsequent watering is carried out only if the last months were arid.
It is necessary to observe not only the watering schedule, but also its correctness. On sandy soils, the procedure is carried out more often, but in small portions, on clay soils - abundantly, but less often. It is also necessary to remember the specifics of watering: you can not pour water under the bush itself, especially if irrigation of young grapes is carried out. Water pours into the groove, which must be produced around the bush, the distance from the bush is 30-45 cm, depth up to 20 cm. It is not recommended to water the vineyard with continuous flooding of the growing area - as a result of this, the air regime may deteriorate. Watering too frequent is not recommended: it leaches all nutrients from the soil and causes the root system to rot, resulting in the bush may die.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
Fertilizers are a very important component of the proper care of grapes of any variety, after all, without proper top dressing, the vine will not be able to grow and gain juices, the color will be weak and fall off, and the berries will cease to form normally and will be small and few. Therefore, to ensure a stable and timely crop, you should pay attention to the introduction of the right fertilizers in the required time. It can be organic fertilizers - compost, manure, green fertilizers, as well as mineral fertilizers of individual action. Even before planting seedlings, the soil should be well seasoned with all the useful substances that the plant will need for growth and fruiting.
How to feed young grapes
If young plants are placed in rich soil, then the first few years they will need only fertilizing. Liquid feeding is most suitable. This may be slurry or chicken droppings with water (1: 3), ammonium nitrate (10 g per 10 l of water), urea (5-6 g per 10 l of water). Manure must first be infused (10-15 days), then the solution is diluted about 5 times and added in portions of 1 bucket to 1 plant under each bush. To improve the penetration of top dressing into the soil, small holes or holes are made around the bush.
How to fertilize fruiting grapes
For adult bushes use organics. The soil under grapes is fertilized every three years. (9-10 kg per square meter of planting). Along with organics, potash and phosphorus fertilizers can be used. At the same time, it is better to introduce manure in the fall, and compost in the spring. If the soil has been fertilized with organic matter since autumn, mineral fertilizers are not used in spring. If not, then in the spring you need to add 50 g of ammonium nitrate, 80-100 g of wood ash and 100-120 g of superphosphate per square meter. It will be more correct to fertilize even before the plants are open.
In the summer, grapes are fed after it has flowered and at the beginning of fruit ripening. Contribute 10 g of potassium salt, 25 g of superphosphate and 15 g of ammonium nitrate for each bush. At the beginning of ripening, saltpeter is not used. It will be most correct to make such fertilizers in special depressions made by crowbar.
Grapes: planting and care (video)
To provide calcium to the soil, lime must be applied to each bush (up to 150 g). If lime is applied to the soil in the autumn, then it should be deepened by 20-25 cm; if in the spring, it should be no more than 5-7 cm.