We all know what gooseberries are. Each left a lot of childhood memories when we cut off gooseberry bushes and enjoyed greenish, sweet and sour berries or fruits of honey taste, when the crop perespet a little. Now it remains only to plant gooseberries in their own country house and provide him with appropriate care in order to again enjoy the aroma and taste from childhood.
Gooseberries are a high-yielding, early-growing and annually fruiting berry shrub, which is characterized by minimal soil requirements and is quite stable even in cold climates. Fruits can be eaten at different stages of ripening. Compote can be made from greenish, sweet and sour berries, half-ripe fruits can be used for jam, and from fully ripened berries you can make an excellent dessert or eat it raw. The shrub fructifies with a round, round or oblong berry of white, yellow, greenish, light cherry or even black color. In terms of properties, gooseberries are not only pleasant to taste, but also quite useful due to the high content of vitamin PP.
Soil preparation for culture
Gooseberry cultivation is possible on almost any soil. It can grow normally on clay, loamy, sandy and sandy loamy soil; it cannot tolerate only boggy and acidic soils. If the crop is grown on clay soil - it must be constantly loosened, and fertilized in sandy and sandy loams every year. Gooseberries are very photophilous, so the elevated and sunny area is the best place to plant it.
Site preparation begins with cleansing of weeds, roots and branches of old plants, that is, from all kinds of land debris. Particular attention should be paid to wheat grass, which should be cleaned, even by hand, as the weed can quickly grow and drown out young plants. In order to completely destroy wheatgrass, it is necessary to remove all its signs on the landing site, it will have to be done several times during the whole season. Further, the territory must be dug up and, if possible, organic fertilizers added to the soil. It can be humus, manure or compost in the proportions of 2-3 kg per 1 m². If the soil is poor, the amount of fertilizer can be increased. Additionally, along with fertilizers, potassium chloride - 15-20 g, superphosphate - 30-50 g and urea - 20-30 g are added to the soil. If organics are not enough, then it can be applied only to the planting pits, the depth of which should be 30-40 cm, and a diameter of about half a meter. If you plant gooseberries in a sandy soil, then lay a clay layer, about 5-7 cm, on the bottom of the planting hole, and if clay soil, then fill it with a layer of gravel river sand. After that, organic fertilizer is introduced into the hole and all the fertile soil from the site is filled up.
In order for the shrub to grow strong and fruitful, it should be planted in the soil in the fall. The end of September or the beginning of October is a suitable period. Read more about planting shrubs in the fall - in the article "Autumn planting of shrubs in the country". The plant should grow stronger and take root before frost. If you decide to plant gooseberries in the spring, then this should be a much earlier period, even before the plants bloom. Before planting, carefully inspect the planting material and remove from the total amount weak, broken or material with very long roots (more than 20 cm). Planting in the soil should occur in rows, at a distance of about 1.5-2 m. In the row, the plants should be at a distance of about 1 meter from each other. After planting, plants should be abundantly watered, about 10-12 liters of water for each bush. The surface layer earth should be compacted. After the moisture is absorbed, the plants must be mulched with humus or peat.
Proper gooseberry care
All provisions for the care of the culture fit in just a few points. Initially, you need to remember that gooseberries do not like shading and weeds, so they should be systematically removed from the territory where the bush grows. Further, the plant requires moderate and timely watering. The reason for this is the high location of the roots, which can no longer reach the wet soil layer, when the top is a little dried up. Under the bushes that have already begun to bear fruit, it is necessary to add urea every year, in the spring, the amount of not more than 20-30 g per square meter. If the plant is strong, then phosphorus-potash and organic fertilizers can be applied once every two years, the calculation is 0.5 buckets of organic fertilizers, 15 g of potassium chloride or about 100 grams of ash and 45 g of superphosphate per 1 m².
An adult plant can reach a height of more than 100 cm and a diameter of 200 cm, so gooseberries must be trimmed for proper bush formation. In this way, you can not only maintain the established yield, but also ensure its growth. basically, a thick, shallow shoot is cut from the bush, certain skeletal branches are replaced with new ones called zero ones. It is also worth noting that branches of the age of 5-7 years are considered the most valuable in gooseberries. It should be pruned not only overgrowths, but also aging shoots, which not only bring few fruits, but also litter the bush. Trimming the upper parts of the shoots is necessary only if you rejuvenate the plant or poor-quality and small-sized berries are formed on the apical flower buds.
Pruning of the bush is carried out every year, otherwise the gooseberry overgrows and the fruits that are inside the bush are poorly sung and ripen of poor quality (often get sick). In addition, if gooseberries become very thick, you will not be able to harvest or fight pests and gooseberries.
In addition to the measures considered, it is necessary to notice the need for rejuvenation of the bush or its branching. Shoots are often confused and young shoots grow inside the bush, while older branches decay outward and fall to the ground. So they begin to get confused with a number of growing plants, and the fruits on such branches rot. In order to prevent the above from happening, the external branches are tied or propped up.
Growing gooseberries quite often becomes a hobby, and people, having tried to plant one bush on the site, already in a few years have a small goose plantation in their summer cottage area.
It is quite simple to propagate gooseberries, if only for the reason that the shrub quickly throws out new roots at the place of contact of the external, gentle branches with the soil. Using this feature, country craftsmen began to propagate gooseberries with layering. in fact, this method is the easiest and most affordable, you just have to dig a gentle branch in a certain place and after 30-40 days the planting material is ready. Most often, layering is taken from a young plant, this process occurs in the spring. When the soil has warmed up, several holes are made in a certain area selected for planting, and planting material is planted in the manner described a little earlier. You can simply propagate gooseberries with layering, each time digging the next shoot. Thus, after a few years, you will have a small goose goose. Do not forget that no matter how you grow the crop, it is imperative to monitor the cleanliness and fertility of the soil.
How to choose a gooseberry variety
Each summer resident and gardener has his own preferences for plants and their varieties, and therefore we decided to provide information about gooseberry varieties, among which you can determine for yourself the most suitable:
- Malachite. A medium-late and winter-hardy variety that is resistant to many plant diseases, including powdery mildew. Bushes are vigorous. The variety has an average yield. The berry is large, green, weighing about 5-6 g, tastes slightly sour, but very juicy. The bush is mid-type;
- Eaglet. High-yielding variety of early ripening. The bush is medium-sized with medium and large berries of black color. The taste is sweet and sour. Variety besshipny, convenient to harvest;
- Russian. Bush mid-early ripening, resistant to frost, quite high yielding. Strong gooseberry with a large red berry. classic taste - sweet and sour. The variety has an average spike;
- Vlad. Early maturation, winter hardiness and disease resistance. The bushes are medium-sized with an average berry of a sweeter taste, the color of the berry is dark red. The bush is almost without thorns, can be found only at the base;
- Northern captain. A variety with an average ripening fruit, which have an average size of about 3-4 g, and black color. The yield of the bush is high, up to 12 kg per bush, the fruits are sweet. The variety is practically boneless;
- Gingerbread Man. The average ripening period of berries. The bush is medium-sized, sprawling. High resistance to diseases and cold. Productivity is up to 10-12 kg from one bush. The berry is large, dark red, with a stable, sweet-sour taste. Thorn weak;
- Russian yellow. The variety is productive, winter-hardy, medium-tall and medium-spread. The berry of this variety is large, bright yellow. The taste is sweet and sour. Prickly variety average;
- Date fruit. The variety is widespread, although it has a rather late ripening period. Tall but compact. The berries are red-violet, large, with a good classic taste. Prickly bush average. Disease resistance is weak;
- Spring. A high-yield variety, medium early, unstable to diseases and cold. The berries are larger and medium, oval or round, greenish with a slight red tint. dessert flavor. refreshing. Prickly bush average;
- African. Varietyly productive and winter-resistant variety. Srednerosly and srednerskidny. The berries are black with a slight waxy coating, the taste is sweet and sour with a currant flavor. The African variety is resistant to diseases and pests. Prickly weak.
As you can see, the choice of gooseberry varieties is quite large and now you only need to determine which of these varieties is suitable for your climatic and soil conditions. We really hope that after reading our material, you have learned how to grow gooseberries so that the berry shrub can please you with its juicy and very tasty fruits.