Ornamental bonsai plant is actually quite whimsical and demanding, and in order to grow it, it takes a lot of time and knowledge. In addition, how to plant, care and grow a bonsai, you should know how to prevent its diseases and cope with pests.
Not only does a decorative tree require painstaking care, pruning, proper dressing, watering, a lot of time, etc., bonsai is still very sensitive to diseases and peststhat can ruin your labors quickly enough. To cope with the invasion of ants, caterpillars, aphids, rot, rust and other harmful factors, we have prepared special material with which you will learn how to prevent, cure the plant and completely prevent its death.
Bonsai, like any other plant, can be attacked by aphids. Mostly, these are parasites, which are one of the largest families of pests that affect a variety of plants. Aphids feed on the plant cell sap, which is caused by the failure to open buds and the modification of leaves and stems. Also, soot fungus may appear on aphid secretions. Aphids are detected very simply, in the characteristic size and shape of the body. You can find it on the underside of the leaves and on the tops of the stems.
Bred aphids on bonsai in a simple way. For this, pest colonies must be eliminated with a piece of gauze or cotton wool soaked in a solution of laundry soap. Next, try to remove the affected leaves from the plant and burn them. The very same tree should be treated with a special insecticide against aphids.
The next terrible pest that can hit a bonsai is the caterpillars. Although they rarely attack plants of a decorative appearance, but still, there are many cases. They are terrible because they eat leaves and shoots, disrupting in this way many vital processes. It’s easy to notice the caterpillars on the leaves, it’s also easy to find them on the traces: pitted shoots, a trace from the holes on the leaves, cobwebs.
If caterpillars are found, they should be destroyed, larvae and a possible cobweb should be removed from the plant. Next, you should change the location of the tree and treat it with ash or gypsum. Gently, in small doses. It is worth remembering that even if a caterpillar appeared on your tree, which is the larva of a butterfly, it can do a lot of damage for such a short period of its existence.
Nematode - small worms no larger than 1 mm in size. They excite dangerous diseases - pratyleneha, gall nematode, stem and leaf. The pest infects the entire plant, thickenings and small “tumors” appear on it. Parasitization occurs on flowering buds, on stems, foliage, in the root system. At the same time, the plant changes color, dries up, new buds do not develop, young shoots are bent, the root system rots and does not fulfill its functions.
Methods of exposure to nematodes may be different. Initially, you should reduce watering, transfer the plant to a cooler place, it is advisable to transplant the plant, removing all the earth from its root system. Next, treat the roots with a special tool that kills nematodes (nematocide) and disinfect the pot or tray. To prevent the occurrence of this pest, it is necessary to use only high-quality soil and compost, sterile trays and containers.
Scaffold and false scaffold
These insects are distinguished by an oval or round body of white, brown or brown color. Their existence on bonsai can be determined by the formation of noticeable colonies, the cessation of the development of shoots, the drying of leaves and their decay, the change in the shape of leaves and stems, as well as the change in their color to yellowish-brown. Most often, insects affect the thin branches and base of the bonsai trunk.
Fight with scale shield and false shield required without delay. For this, it is necessary to remove growths from the tree with a needle, treat the places of vital activity of the colonies with alcohol and a special insecticide from these insects.
Ants are beneficial insects, but not when it comes to bonsai. First of all, they have to be afraid because of the posting of smaller pests and plant diseases. So, if an active anthill exists near the habitat of your tree, then not only ants that spoil the bark of the trunk, and sometimes leaves, may appear on the plant, but also the aphids of which they are a consumer.
Ant prophylaxis considered anthill control nearby. If insects began to attack the bonsai, then you should change its location or poison the pests with special poison.
Curly aphids are insects that are considered quite dangerous and can cause plants, and even more so bonsai, irreparable harm. You can find curly aphids by signs: dense white fluff on the plant, colonies located in the down, on the underside of the foliage and on young shoots. These insects feed on plant sap, which is why they take their vitality. Bonsai loses its appearance, the leaves become painful - dull, dull, and the shoots are sick from a lack of nutrients.
Get Rid of Curly Aphids it is possible by removing insect colonies with cotton or gauze moistened with an insecticide or alcohol from the location. If the infection is massive, then the lower part of each leaflet must be treated with a special poison.
An insect that lives in a tree trunk or under its bark. Each larva is capable of causing irreparable harm to the plant. Its presence can be recognized by the holes in the bark and the winding labyrinths on the upper woody part under the bark. Elms and conifers can be the most affected. At the time of the active life of the grinder beetle and its larvae on the plant, and this happens at the end of summer, it begins to deteriorate from loss of strength due to damage from the inside and the appearance of fungus and other infections.
Ways to deal with the beetle grinder simple, but you need to apply all the knowledge and necessary drugs in a very timely manner, since it only takes one season to completely destroy the bonsai. Prevention and spraying are required. If the beetle has already settled under the bark, its larvae and affected parts of the tree must be removed. In spring, the bonsai should be fed with fertilizers in order to restore strength, and again treated with the corresponding poisons.
Spider mite and flat red tick
This insect is extremely difficult to detect due to its small size. It has a rounded shape and a yellowish-green color. Despite its small size, the harm that it can cause is very great. Ticks live on bonsai leaves, on their underside, braiding everything with cobwebs. Leaves damaged by insects dry out, lose their color and crumble. You can find ticks on the web and spots of beige and white.
Fight against spider mites - the process is not very long, but the means should be applied on time to save the plant. You should know that the spider mite does not develop in a humid environment, so do not overdry the plant and soil. If the tick already lives on the bonsai, then the affected areas must be systematically sprayed, abundantly wetting the web. The plant for this period is best placed in a slightly lit room. Remove ticks with tweezers and treat the affected area with cotton wool and alcohol. If the bonsai plot is large in area, then we recommend using acaricides, which must be used strictly according to the manufacturer's instructions.
The disease is manifested by slight yellowing and spots of “rusty” color over the entire surface of the plant, both on the bark and on the leaves. Many of us have noticed similar effects on other plants, but they also easily affect bonsai, most often fruit and coniferous specimens. Rust can be crimson and even black, but all of it is an infectious fungus.
Fight rust it is necessary at that moment, as soon as it has been noticed, otherwise the disease spreads very quickly, splashing out of bursting growths. Spores enter healthy plants and infect them. To get rid of rust, you need to cut off growths, remove from the plant the affected parts of the bark, leaves, shoots and instantly burn, so that the spores do not spread. To completely destroy the rust should be treated with a fungicide tree. For proportions and method of application, see the packaging.
Next, we will consider an infection that affects the vessels of the plant body. It can be caused by pruning roots and branches incorrectly during formation. The infection enters the plant through “wounds”, causing yellowing of the leaves. Further, the plant dries and dies.
Get rid of verticillosispossible by pruning the affected leaves and destroying them. After pruning, change the soil, which may also be infected with Verticillium, and treat the bonsai with systemic fungicide.
Root rot is a fairly serious disease. It can be recognized by the appearance of a green coating on the trunk and on the surface of the soil in the vessel. Also a symptom of root rot is a change in the color of the leaves. At this point, the root system softens, fades and the plant deteriorates quite quickly.
This disease may occur due to insufficient ventilation or excessive watering.. Also, the cause may be improper soil mixture and arrangement of drainage holes. If you find symptoms of root rot, you should immediately change the location of the decorative tree. Place the bonsai in a well-ventilated place and reduce watering. If at the time of the disease there is a transplant season, the plant should be prepared, remove particles of dead roots, replace the soil and vessel.
This disease is very common among plants and affects all green spaces, including bonsai. The disease is characterized by the appearance of yellow spots with white-gray fluff on the underside of the leaf. The number of affected surfaces increases rapidly, spots darken, leaves deteriorate.
Often cure bonsai of powdery mildew possible by cropping affected areas. The leaves are burned so as not to spread the infection, and the tool immediately amenable to disinfection. The plant is quarantined and sprayed with fungicide. If done on time, downy mildew will not spread to other plants, and they will remain healthy.
Powdery mildew is a disease that can affect garden plants. Fungal infection and spread to bonsai are not neglected. It can significantly reduce decorativeness, covering the leaves and stems of the tree. The disease is pronounced on the deciduous part of the bonsai, on the upper and lower parts, creating a white or gray coating. Over time, the leaf becomes brown or even crimson, at which point it is considered permanently damaged.
Powdery Mildew Control Measures should be taken at the first moment, once the disease has been recognized. To do this, the leaves are torn off, cut off and burned, and the tool, as you know, is immediately treated with disinfectants. The tree is pollinated with fungicide from powdery mildew and placed in quarantine for some time.
Bonsai can also be infected with chlorosis - loss of color and brightness of the whole plant due to lack of sunlight and nutrients. To notice this disease is quite simple, the main thing is to correctly identify it and identify it among the symptoms of other diseases or damage from pests.
Cure Chlorosis Bonsai very simple, the plant should only be placed in a more sunny place and slightly fed with fertilizers.
White root rot
The disease is very similar to ordinary root rot, but it affects the root system of the plant not because the roots lack oxygen, but because of the parasitic fungus. External symptoms of bonsai disease with white root rot are a deterioration in the general condition of the plant, falling leaves, a change in the brightness of the color of the shoots. At this point, the roots swell, soften and darken. If you open the root, you can find inside a pronounced color - light or even whitish.
Rid the plant of white root rot it is possible with the help of its transplantation, replacing the pot and soil. But at the same time, it is necessary to remove the affected areas from the root system and treat the residual roots with the necessary chemical agent.
Understanding the finicky ornamental plants, we should learn all the diseases and possible pests of bonsai, try to correctly identify the symptoms of a particular damage and use only those methods of exposure that have been repeatedly tested by professional gardeners. If the methods of exposure are chemical, then we advise not only to carefully select the drugs only in specialized stores and use them strictly according to the instructions, but also to apply personal protection from damage by chemical means of their own skin, eyes and other parts of the body. Take care of the bonsai correctly, give them more time, provide decent care and then the plants will gladly repay you with an excellent appearance and a whole range of aesthetic properties.