Beresklet (Euónymus) - a plant belonging to the Bereskletovye family (Celastraceae). In recent years, culture has been widely used in landscape design, both in our country and abroad.
Biological description of the plant
The genus Beresklet combines not only deciduous, but also evergreens of medium height, which can be represented by low trees and low-growing, ground cover bushes. The aerial part is characterized by the formation of tetrahedral or rounded branches. Quite often cork growths are present.
Foliage with a smooth surface, oppositely located. Flowering is relatively plentiful. Flowers are unattractive, small in size, pale green or brownish in color, collected in corymbose or racemose inflorescences.
The fruits are represented by a leathery and dry, winged or prickly box. Seeds may have a white, reddish or brownish-black color. Depending on the species, the seed box has a yellow, pinkish, reddish-scarlet, raspberry-burgundy or dark purple color.
How to grow euonymus
The best types of euonymus
The flora of Russia has about twenty species, but only a few of them are most widely used in home gardening.
Low evergreen shrub plant. Ground cover is perfect for outdoor cultivation. In the garden, the Fortune view can be represented by the following varieties:
- Baby or Minimus
- Emerald Gold or Emerald Gold
- Emerald Gaeti or "Emerald gaiety"
- Silver Queen or SilverQueen
- SunSpot or SunSpot
A characteristic species feature is nondescript flowering and very highly decorative foliage. The creeping trunk is well leafy with bright, spotty, fringed leaves.
The Japanese species of euonymus is very popular in the suburbs. The advantage is the ability to grow, both in indoor floriculture and in the open. In our country, culture is represented by the following popular varieties:
- "Pseudo Laurus"
Despite the fact that some species can reach a height of ten meters, including species such as the large-winged, Maak and Maksimovich, a significant part of euonymus is of medium size and Perfect for cultivating a house or in a personal garden:
- warty, or low-flowering - winter-hardy shrub plant with a height of not more than two meters;
- Bunge - perennial having a dense crown with light green, light yellow or scarlet foliage;
- Hamilton - a narrow-leaved species, characterized in autumn by decorative light yellow foliage;
- European - with attractive, discolourating foliage, and carmine-pink fruits;
- Siebold - forming a low and fairly wide perennial bush with decorative pink fruits.
In addition to the types listed above, Koopman euonymus and Winged euonymus, as well as Cork, Sakhalin, Sacred and Broadleaf species are of interest to amateur gardeners.
Outdoor planting and care
Perennial cultivation in open ground is quite simple, so the plant is well suited for cultivation by beginners and inexperienced gardeners. Landing is most often carried out in the spring. The green leafy perennial should be placed in light partial shade, and variegated forms prefer fairly bright lighting by sunlight. The soil on the landing site should be fairly light and fertile, with good water permeability. The best option is to place on slightly alkaline or neutral soils, without too high occurrence of groundwater and increased soil moisture.
How to plant an euonymus
Caring for a plant grown in open ground consists in the following measures:
- watering should be carried out as the soil dries up, and the best result is the high-quality mulching of the soil in near-stem circles;
- a two-time feeding of the plant is necessarily carried out in the spring-summer season by means of mineral fertilizers;
- regular pruning positively affects the branching of the aerial parts and improves the decorativeness of the culture;
- the forming euonymus haircut should be carried out in the early spring or immediately after fruiting;
- at the stage of active vegetation, garden and indoor perennials need to provide partial sanitary thinning;
- replanting indoor culture, used in the summer to decorate garden design, is necessary annually.
The main plant parasites of the euonymus are aphids, mealybug, spider mites and caterpillars. To control pests, three times a week is used to treat the aerial parts of the plant with the Actellik preparation, diluted at the rate of 1-2 ml per liter of settled water. You can protect the plant from mealybugs with the help of double treatment with the preparations "Aktara", "Confidor" and "Fitoverm" with a week break.
About the poisonousness of the plant
All species of euonymus belong to the category of poisonous perennials. Poisonous perennial has evolving alkaloid shoots. Foliage is characterized by the content of cyclitols, triterpenoids, steroids, alkaloids and flavonoids. The fruits contain glucose, cyclitols and carotenoids. The seed material is characterized by a sufficient content of carbohydrates, sesquiterpenoids, carotenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, as well as higher fatty acids and their glycerides. Due to its chemical composition, the following properties are characteristic of a plant:
For the preparation of therapeutic agents, leaves and fruits are used, which are the basis of decoctions and tinctures.
Features of propagation by cuttings
A significant part of euonymus plants is very well and easily propagated by the main vegetative methods, including the use of root offspring, dividing the bush and rooting of green cuttings. For propagation of garden and indoor perennials, cuttings are most often used. Correct and timely propagation by cuttings allows you to get a well-developed ornamental plant as soon as possible:
- need to cut the plant in the period from June to July;
- for this purpose, you need to choose young, but with sufficient elasticity shoots;
- chopped cuttings should have a length of six centimeters with the presence of one internode.
Prepared cuttings are planted in greenhouses under a film shelter. The soil substrate should be represented by fertile soil, on top of which you need to pour clean medium-grained sand with a layer of five centimeters. To develop a full-fledged root system will take about a month and a half.
Autumn care and wintering
In order for the wintering of the decorative culture to go well, the plant must be properly and timely prepared. If adult plants in most regions of our country are able to winter without shelter, then young bushes of varietal euonymus in the first couple of years after planting in open ground must be provided with high-quality protection. Dry shelter is most often used for shelter.
It is in the autumn period that seed material is collected. Completely ripened box-fruits acquire a characteristic coloration and crack. If the autumn seed propagation method is used, then crops must be covered before a steady cooling period with a layer of dry straw or fallen leaves. A prerequisite for successful overwintering, both adults and young perennials in open ground conditions is the mulching of tree trunks with organic and spruce spruce branches.
Use cases in landscaping
Almost all types and varieties of euonymus have the ability to grow well and quickly enough. Most are ground cover highly decorative shrubs that look great in tight groups or in a tape planting. The plant looks very impressive in large massifs. In recent years, culture has found very wide application in urban and park landscaping, due to a combination of high decorativeness and unpretentiousness.
It is optimal to supplement the euonymus with thuja, spruce and juniper. A mixed decorative composition can be represented by perennial shrubs and conifers, including mock up, various varieties of lilac and barberry. Almost all green-leaf varieties are used in the landscape as a background to create floral arrangements or flowering plants. Low and dwarf varieties are ideal for decorating small and dense curtains, rocky gardens, flat rockeries and alpine slides. Seedlings can be planted in areas not suitable for growing other ornamental crops.
How to crop an euonymus
Beautiful shrubbery plants, which include including euonymus, are quite actively used in decorative gardening. Cute trees and bushes have a very attractive, fluffy or openwork crown, and are also characterized by unpretentiousness and undemanding care, therefore they are almost ideal for cultivation by beginners or time-limited gardeners.