Many Russians are engaged in raising chickens. But unfortunately, even experienced poultry farmers do not always know about chicken diseases. Although these poultry often get sick. Among the diseases associated with mechanical damage, there are many viral infectious diseases.
Newcastle disease in domestic chickens can be attributed to the most dangerous viral infection. In large poultry farms, veterinarians tightly control the condition of the birds. Outbreaks of the disease are not uncommon, but, unfortunately, due to ignorance or for some other reason, poultry farmers do not report sick chickens. If Newcastle disease is detected in chickens, the farm is quarantined.
From the medical history
Like many other infections, Newcastle disease (chicken plague, Asiatic plague, pseudo plague) originated in Indonesia. It was registered there in the early years of the 20th century. After a short interval, the first sick birds were found in England, near Newcastle. Hence the name of the disease.
From the UK, the infection enters the United States. During World War II, Newcastle disease spread throughout Europe and the Soviet Union. Unfortunately, over the years, it has not been possible to get rid of chicken plague. In 2014, the disease was recorded in Dagestan and some regions of Russia. It touched such areas:
- Pskov and Krasnoyarsk Territories.
Due to the fact that chicken plague is an insidious infectious disease, poultry farmers must understand the symptoms, preventive measures and treatment of chickens at home.
What is Newcastle chicken disease:
Forms of the disease
Newcastle can take many forms, each of which has symptoms.
Attention! This is an acute infection, fatal up to 90%. If you do not respond in a timely manner, you can lose your entire herd.
Newcastle disease in chickens, symptoms:
- The chicken's body is exhausted, it refuses to eat, muscle tremors are observed.
- It is difficult for the bird to breathe because of the mucus that forms. The stool is liquid, with a color inappropriate for chicken droppings. Often blood appears in it.
- The development of conjunctivitis, corneal opacity almost always accompanies Newcastle disease.
- Although rare, chickens become paralyzed.
- During an autopsy, a hemorrhagic lesion of the digestive system can be detected.
It is also Newcastle's sharpest form. With timely treatment, up to 50% of infected chickens survive.
- Mucus in the respiratory organs;
- Difficulty breathing.
Important! If the elimination rate in adults is less than 50 percent, then in chickens up to 90%.
Chickens mainly suffer from this type of Newcastle disease, while among adult birds slightly more than 30% die. Chickens at any age have a nervous system disorder. Vaccination can save the farm.
The mildest form of Newcastle disease. Although the chickens are lethargic, weak, and eat poorly, the hens continue to lay eggs.
Attention! Eggs from sick hens with thin shells.
Since the strain of this form of Newcastle has low virulence, it is used in the manufacture of vaccines.
What is the cause of the disease
To identify the disease of Newcastle chickens and begin treatment, you need to know how birds are infected:
- From infected domesticated chicken during the incubation period (3 to 10 days).
- From vaccinated immunocompromised animals.
- From wild birds (including pigeons).
- Ticks and other insects.
- Rodents: mice, rats.
The disease can be transmitted:
- By air. The virus can cover a distance of up to 5 km.
- By water. If an infected bird drinks water from one container, then the likelihood of illness in the rest of the bird offspring is high.
- Through food, if sick and healthy chickens are kept together, as in the photo.
- From a sick person.
- Through stool and mucus from the mouth.
Attention! Newcastle disease persists for a long time in feathers, eggs and meat.
Features of the course of the disease
The clinic for Newcastle disease is different, depending on the form and strain of the virus. If the birds are vaccinated, then they are resistant to the disease. Infection of chickens manifests itself after 3-10 days.
If the birds have not been vaccinated, then after three days all birds can be affected by the acute form. After 3 days, 100% of the chickens die
Newcastle disease affects the nervous system of chickens, so their coordination is impaired, the neck bends and twists. The head is constantly twitching, seizures may occur, birds wheeze and cough. Conjunctivitis develops before our eyes.
Attention! Vaccinated chickens, although they get sick, are in a milder form, the mortality rate is no more than 10-15%.
Treatment and control measures
Only a specialist is able to determine the form of the disease and prescribe a course of treatment.
It should be noted right away that it is useless to treat the disease. Even after recovering, the chicken remains the carrier of the virus for a year. Therefore, experts recommend destroying sick birds. To avoid disease in the herd, chicks need to be vaccinated at one day of age.
After strangulation of sick chickens, total disinfection is carried out in the room. Every corner of the chicken coop, dishes, inventory is processed, the litter is changed.
If a farm is found to have Newcastle disease in chickens, then quarantine is imposed on it. As a rule, it lasts at least 30 days. At this time, it is forbidden to sell eggs, chicken meat, as well as down, feathers. In addition, the sale and purchase of chickens is prohibited. No outsiders are allowed on the farm.
Restrictions can be lifted if re-maintenance of chickens and premises does not show Newcastle disease.
That is why, with a serious attitude to the matter, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures and vaccinate chickens in a timely manner.
Preventive measures will not cause particular difficulties for the owners of the chicken herd. After all, you don't have to do anything special. The main thing is to properly staff the herd, follow the recommendations for the care and feeding of poultry.
The chicken coop where the chickens live and the surrounding area must be kept clean and disinfected from time to time. It is advisable not to allow wild pigeons, mice, rats, as carriers of the Newcastle disease virus, to chickens.
Vaccinate poultry twice a year. Particular attention should be paid to young animals. They are vaccinated against the disease at one day of age. Your veterinarian will help you choose the vaccine.
But sometimes you have to vaccinate chickens outside of the plan. When they do it:
- at the outbreak of Newcastle in your courtyard;
- if poultry fell ill and died in neighboring farms;
- if there is a poultry farm near your home (within 10 km) where an outbreak of Newcastle disease has been reported.
Attention! If you purchase chickens from large farms, then, as a rule, all hatched chicks are vaccinated there, so they have already developed immunity.
Vaccine against Newcastle
Vaccines are live and inactivated, in addition, they differ in the degree of aggressiveness of the virus. The use of live vaccines can cause complications in chickens, especially respiratory diseases. After the vaccine, chickens begin to sneeze, cough, and a runny nose may appear.
Advice! Read the instructions before vaccination.
The live vaccine can be administered in different ways: with a syringe or instilled in the eyes and nose. As a rule, this method of vaccination works faster than injections. It is a pity that the effect of the drug does not last long, about three months. If the vaccine is sufficient for ordinary chickens and layers, then broilers remain at risk.
For adult chickens, an inactivate is suitable, which lasts from six months to a year.
In order to prevent the disease, experts advise revaccination after 6 months. Such procedures will reliably and for a long time preserve the immunity of chickens and then the symptoms and the Newcastle disease itself will not appear in your yard.
Before and after vaccination, it is necessary to feed the chickens with fortified feed, so that the effect is better, for a week.
Vaccination of chickens:
Today, veterinary pharmacies sell a variety of drugs to vaccinate poultry against Newcastle disease. Unfortunately, the prices for them are too high, not every small poultry farmer can afford it.
There are domestic and imported drugs, but their effectiveness is the same. But the prices are different. Veterinarians will advise on which vaccine is best for treating your birds.
If you decide to seriously engage in breeding chickens, you need to be prepared for bird diseases. At the first sign of malaise, you should consult with specialists.
This is especially true of Newcastle disease, which has been walking the planet for more than a century. After all, it develops rapidly and can take away the entire bird flock in a few days. In order not to incur economic and moral losses, keep the chickens clean, vaccinate in a timely manner.