The pear sap or leaf beetle is a common pest of fruit crops. Its natural habitat is Europe and Asia. The insects, accidentally brought to North America, quickly took root and spread throughout the continent. In private and farm gardens, infestation by pear sap is one of the causes of tree damage and crop loss.
Description of pear copper
An ordinary pear leaf beetle or pear honeydew is a small insect with developed wings, capable of jumping from plant to plant. Females are extremely fertile, hibernate under old bark and fallen leaves. During the growing season, 4-5 generations of honeyberry have time to develop.
The color of the adult lice (imago) varies from orange-red in summer to black in winter. The ribcage is covered with whitish longitudinal stripes, transparent wings, folding along the body, are painted with dark veins. The length of a mature insect is 2.5-3 mm. The oral apparatus is of a sucking type.
A photo of a pear honeydew will help to get an idea of the pest.
The eggs are whitish at first, then orange, have the shape of an elongated oval and a length of 0.3 mm. Each female lays from 400 to 1200 pieces.
The greatest danger to plants is represented by the nymphs of the pear saplings, which represent the last stage of larval development. They go through 5 stages of maturation until they turn into an adult, ready to reproduce, insect. During this time, the size of the pear nymph increases from 0.36 to 1.9 mm, the color changes from yellowish to red-brown.
Black-colored adults of both sexes hibernate in cracks in the bark and under crumbling leaves. At an average daily temperature of -2-3 ° C, they begin their vital activity and leave the shelter. In the southern regions this can happen in February, in the north - no later than the end of March.
At a temperature of + 5 ° C, mating begins, the first clutch is made when the air warms up to + 10 ° C. The body of the next generations of the pest is colored in orange-red and red tones. The first clutch is usually located at the base of the buds, the subsequent ones are in the form of a chain on the pedicels and on both sides of the leaves.
The higher the air temperature, the faster the pest develops. If at 10 ° C nymphs from eggs are shown after 23 days, then at 22.6 ° C the interval is reduced to 6 days.
The nymph passing through 5 phases of development after each molt looks different:
- Orange insect 0.36-0.54 mm long with dark spots on the back.
- The color of the pear nymph lightens, and the size increases to 0.55-0.72 mm.
- The insect turns gray-yellow, 0.75 mm to 1 mm long.
- The size of the nymph reaches 1.1-1.35 mm, the color changes to green-yellow. The wing cases become visible and overlap a little.
- The nymph looks more and more like an adult pear sucker. Its size increases to 1.56-1.9 mm, the color becomes brownish-green, and the wing cases overlap completely.
During the growing season, 4-5 generations of pear saplings appear, which multiply rapidly.
Why an insect is dangerous
Reproduction and development of pear saplings occur only on young, actively growing parts of the plant. Adult insects (imago) damage greens when feeding, but nymphs do the main harm.
Pest nymphs suck the juice from young greenery, and the excess is excreted in the form of a sticky substance called honeydew. With a large accumulation of leaf beetles, the results of their vital activity envelop the vegetative organs of the pear, and the liquid can even drip onto the ground.
Affected leaves and shoots become infected with a sooty fungus, dry out, and this, in turn, causes the entire tree to weaken and damage it in winter. Flower buds populated with pear tartar dry and crumble. The same fruits that managed to set grow small, deformed, the pulp becomes woody, tasteless.
Honeydew overlaps the stomata on the leaves, which in itself inhibits the pear, interferes with photosynthesis and plant nutrition. This opens the way for the development of various infections, and the sticky secretions attract other pests.
Severe damage to pears by copperheads can affect the next year's harvest. Damage to 25% of leaves is the threshold beyond which economic losses begin.
Important! The flies are especially dangerous for young pear trees.
Measures to combat pear copper
It is difficult to fight the beetle beetle, since it comes out of wintering at low temperatures, lays eggs early, and adults jump from tree to tree and can fly. The most effective means of destruction are chemical, which is not to the liking of the supporters of organic farming. Pesticides of biological origin have shown good results.
Pear sucker is destroyed with pesticides, which include organophosphorus compounds, mineral oils and other active substances of contact and intestinal action. The greatest efficiency is achieved when they alternate.
Before bud break and on a green cone to destroy pear saplings, spraying is carried out with the following preparations:
- Drug 30 Plus;
The first treatment is done as soon as the temperature reaches + 4 ° C in the daytime. To check whether the pests have already woken up, you need to put white agrofibre or other fabric under the tree, knock on the branches with a stick. A black beetle that emerged from wintering will be clearly visible on light-colored material.
During the growing season, pears are sprayed with preparations:
- Drug 30 Plus;
- Iskra M.
Poisonous chemicals should be alternated, changing the active substance or using biological pesticides, since pear sapwood develops immunity to them.
Neonicotinoids are organic insecticides that cause paralysis death in pests in high doses. They are good because they are highly toxic to insects, and have a moderate effect on vertebrates. The simplest and most accessible drug in this group is tobacco dust, it is infused and used according to the instructions.
To combat pear sucker, the forest bug Anthocoris nemoralis is used, which can help in the destruction of other pests, sold in bottles of 500 ml. Among the insects useful for the garden, it should be noted:
- fire beetles;
- flies-sirfid (hoverfly);
- ground beetles;
Using folk methods to cope with pear honeydew is possible only if insect infestation is detected in the early stages, and measures for their destruction were taken immediately. A large number of pests must be dealt with by applying pesticides.
Infusions and decoctions of herbs are ineffective, but you can use:
Sometimes you can hear advice to treat pear trees with a solution of silicate glue. This cannot be done - it is possible that liquid glass will destroy insects, but it will clog all the stomata on the leaves, which will cause the greens to die faster than from pests.
Those who do not want to use strong means can be advised to regularly inspect trees for pests, not to neglect sanitary measures. In order to prevent the appearance of copper on the pears, you should:
- carry out preventive spraying of trees in spring and autumn;
- remove plant residues at the end of the season;
- dig up the trunk circle in the fall;
- peel off old bark and whitewash tree trunks;
- attract beneficial insects and birds to the garden.
Pear Copperhead is a dangerous pest that wakes up early, flying, prolific. It is impossible to prevent its appearance in the garden. It is important to find the beetle in time and take measures to destroy it.