Petunia is an unpretentious, well-known flower. Their modern breeding diversity is very rich, but most still grow simple varieties with ordinary flowers. Petunia is afraid of frost. It is planted in small groups, creating bright spots on the lawn or in a row along garden paths. Planting schemes are varied, but the distance between plants should be at least 25-30 cm.
Petunias are undemanding to the soil, they feel great on light sandy and heavy clay soils. Poor they are affected by a large amount of organic matter and nitrogen, as this contributes to the development of the vegetative mass to the detriment of flowering. The area where these flowers will be planted should be sunny (although partial shade is also possible), warm and without stagnation of water. During the growing season, planting should be weeded from the weeds and moderately watered.
How to properly grow petunia
The main conditions for successful flower cultivation are the southern location and timely watering.
Many valuable varietal plants are grown by seedlings. The seeds of these flowers are very small, so no more than 0.02 grams are sown in a standard box. It is not necessary to sow densely, as the seedlings easily fall ill with a black leg. Crops through a sieve with small cells are covered with a very thin layer of the soil mixture. After 14 days, the first shoots appear. Crops and seedlings are kept at a temperature of 20 degrees. If the temperature is lower, then the petunia does not sprout and the emerged shoots grow slowly.
When the top layer dries, it is watered from a spray bottle. When 2 to 3 true leaves appear, plants should be dived into boxes (large-flowered varieties) or greenhouse soil (small-flowered varieties) at a distance of 5 cm from each other. By mid-April, seedlings are usually ready to dive.
Seedling after diving is also kept at a temperature of 20 degrees, with good lighting, moderate watering and ventilation in good weather. At the very end of spring, petunia is transplanted into the open ground. Also, the flower can be grown on window sills. To do this, before the onset of frost, they dig it out and transplant it into a pot with a diameter of 20 cm, on the bottom of which a little humus is poured. Then the plant is pruned heavily, giving a room bush form.
Further care consists of watering and top dressing as needed. In the case when the plant grows wildly, but does not bloom, top dressing should be stopped and watered only after a strong drying of the soil. After such stress, it usually blooms.
If the petunia is greatly extended, you need to lower the temperature and increase the lighting. After this, such a plant will not bloom for some time, but gradually, after improving lighting, it will again be covered with huge flowers. If the petunia is well looked after, then it can constantly bloom in the room for several years without a transplant.
Fertilizer for flowers
The first few weeks should not be fertilized seedlings. What they need is spraying with a very light solution of potassium permanganate and a solution of fungicide. But, after the plants got into the container or box for seedlings, that is, they have grown a little, you can apply additional fertilizing. You can use universal floral fertilizers for root formation for this.
After the flowers normally take root in a new place, experts recommend applying spraying with special compounds for petunias, or with a green crystal that activates growth. If there are few crops, but you increase the percentage of surviving seedlings, then we recommend that you use trace elements - B1 and B12. You can buy these vitamins in any pharmacy, and their price is quite affordable. But, it makes no sense to use vitamins if you have large volumes of crops. In this case, the most appropriate is to apply complex fertilizers.
As the plants grow and develop, the number of top dressings can be slightly increased, and initially bring them up to three times a week. It is advisable to alternate spraying and root dressing, as this will give the greatest effect.
Regular feeding perfectly affects the growth and external data of the flower. Therefore, if you want to see a really beautiful plant, provide it with the necessary amount of useful elements in time.
It is important to feed plants that grow in pots or special containers, since there initially the nutrient substrate depletes quite quickly and becomes not particularly suitable for further development. But, if the substrate is saturated, then you should not spend time and money on fertilizers, especially since their excess will not benefit.
If your petunia grows in open ground, then it must be strong enough to survive the effects of the external environment and various weather phenomena. Conduct foliar top dressing with complex fertilizers, potassium humate, magnesium, urea. For adult plants, use magnesium monophosphate, potassium monophosphate, calcium nitrate. But, if you are not sure about the dosages and norms of fertilizing, we recommend using specially prepared complexes, which you can buy without difficulty.
Flower culture diseases
Of course, everyone considers petunias to be hardy plants, and so it is, but if even the strongest plant is created unsuitable for growth and development, its health can be quickly broken by diseases.
First of all, you should remember that it is much easier to prevent flower diseases than to bring them out and save the plants.
Therefore, be sure to use the generally accepted rules for planting and growing:
- the right choice of soil
- timely watering and moisture monitoring,
- permissible lighting and temperature conditions,
- planting density (whether it is sowing, seedlings or adult plants) and so on.
If you notice diseased petunias in pots or in the garden, be sure to remove them and the adjacent earthen cover, treat the rest of the plantings with fungicides, adjust the conditions of detention and bring them back to normal.
Also, to prevent some diseases of petunias, a number of actions can be carried out even before planting.
- choose the right healthy and nutritious soil,
- steaming the ground before sowing the seeds,
- monitor the density of crops and maintenance regimes,
- avoid excess fertilizers and their shortages.
Varieties of petunias
You can talk for a very long time about beautiful flowers that will easily decorate every room and ennoble any territory. But, you should start by choosing the right variety for planting, otherwise you may be a little disappointed after you put a lot of effort and time into growing. Of course, even another variety will please you with its beauty, but suddenly you wanted the wrong color of the plant or not such growth.
Unfortunately, we can’t bring you all the varieties, hybrids, followers of the series, since only according to estimates at the end of 2010 there were more than 500 of them. We are sure that now, due to the popularity of petunias in the world, there are several times more of them, therefore we will tell only about some.
Series “Aladdin”. Compact plants up to 30 cm high. Flowers up to 7 cm, have more than a dozen colors. The main ones in the series are Sherry Morne Mix and Nautical Mix.
Series “Daddy”. Early flowering plants, which in external parameters differ little from the previous series, are only slightly larger, the flowers are in diameter and 2 times less than the color.
Large-flowered two-color hybrids
Series “Picoti”. Early flowering, with large flowers, about 10 cm in diameter, in 5-6 plant colors, which differ in the original white ornament on the edges of the petals.
Features of growing petunias (video)
Large-flowered semi-amplic varieties
Petunia “Erfordia” - strong and branching plants with early flowering in 4 colors. The flowers are large, the greens are very dense.
Large-flowered terry flowers
One of the most famous is considered a variety “Glorius Mix”with a rich mixture of colors, large beautiful flowers and a strong bush up to 35 cm tall.
The average number of colors of the series is 10-14, the distinguishing features are the compactness of plants and an average height of about 25 cm.
- Prime time
Multi-flowered Terry Petunias
The height of the plants, on average, is about 30 cm, varieties are distinguished by bright colors and abundant flowering.
- Bonanza Mishung.
Really small and very nice plants that can please any housewife.
Compact bushes up to 25 cm tall, with small flowers in more than 11 flowers.
Interesting enough plants that are very different from everyone else.
The following series are known today:
- Million Bells
- Salmon Wave
- Ash Wave,
- Rose Wave
- Pink wave
- Perley wave
- Fortunia Wave.
As you can see, there is always something to choose from, the main thing is to convince yourself to stop only on one variety and experiment a little, and then you can already create a large and bright flower garden that you can safely be proud of. We recommend reading the article on the beautiful eschscholtia