Today, not only in warm regions, but also in the Urals and Siberia, conifers are widely used to decorate the garden. One of the basic plants in landscape design is the thuja, which gardeners often use to create hedges, design malls or as solitaires. However, in order for the conifers of the cypress family to take root and grow well in regions with cold winters, it is necessary to study the instructions for proper tree planting, caring for the thuja in the autumn, preparation for winter.
Description, types and varieties
An evergreen tree or shrub in a culture grows up to 11 meters. Young plants have a light green soft needle needlesand mature trees are scaly, opposite opposite dark green leaves. Thuja have oval or oblong cone fruits in which flat seeds ripen in the first year.
In the gardens of our country, most often grown is thawed western, the height of which can reach from 8 to 12 meters. At a young age, the plant is a pyramidal bush, the crown of which eventually becomes ovoid, columnar, conical, spherical or pin-shaped. Several varieties of western thuja are known:
- Smaragd - a plant with a cone-shaped crown in height reaches about two meters and is characterized by weak branching. Evergreen glossy branches of the plant are located far from each other on vertical shoots. The variety is unpretentious and is very popular among gardeners.
- Brabant - a tall tree with a crown up to four meters in diameter has a conical shape, a reddish or gray-brown bark and scaly green needles.
- Woodward - thuja up to two and a half meters high is distinguished by a spherical crown with a diameter of up to five meters. She has dark green needles and flat, straight shoots.
- Danica - a thuja of dwarf sizes is distinguished by shiny, soft, thick green needles, which in winter become brownish.
- Ericoides - a bush up to one meter high has a wide conical crown, bent or straight flexible shoots and yellow-green, soft styloid needles.
- Filiformis - the variety is distinguished by a wide cone-shaped or dense rounded shape, up to one and a half meters high and hanging filiform long shoots with light green needles.
Technology and step-by-step description of landing thuja in autumn
It is possible to plant a coniferous plant both in spring and in autumn. It is not worth tightening with an autumn planting, otherwise the tree may not take root. The site for the arborvitae should be protected from drafts and well lit in the morning. Direct sunlight should not fall on the tree at noon, otherwise, due to dehydration the plant will not tolerate winter well.
The conifer loves nutritious soddy soil with peat and sand. To plant a tree, you need to dig a hole, which must correspond to the root system of the seedling. The hole for planting is dug 15-30 cm deeper and 35-40 cm wider than the roots with an earthen lump of the plant. If the trees will be to land on the street along the alley, the distance between them should be from 3.5 to 4 meters. Several bushes in the country can be planted with a distance of one to five meters.
- The roots of the seedling are soaked in water until air bubbles completely come out of the ground.
- The bottom of the planting hole is filled with a mixture of soil and humus, in which mineral fertilizers for conifers are added.
- The bush is placed in a hole, the roots are straightened and covered with a nutritious soil mixture. It must be ensured that the root neck is just above the surface of the earth.
- The soil is neatly compacted and watered abundantly.
- When water is absorbed, the trunk circle is mulched by pine bark, compost, peat or wood chips. The lower branches and trunk of the mulch should not close.
The trunk circle is covered with mulch so that when growing a tree in the Urals, Siberia or other areas with cold winters, the roots of the plant do not freeze. In summer, mulch will protect the root system from heat and will save moisture.
How to care for thuja
To grow thuja in your area, you need to know all the subtleties of caring for conifers:
- In the first month after planting, seedlings are watered once a week, pouring from ten to fifty liters of water under each bush. The volume of water depends on the size of the plant. If it has not rained for a long time in the summer, you can plant a shower in order to wash off the dust from the needles. Subsequently, watering may be rarer, but regular, so that the surface root system of the plant does not dry out.
- After rain or watering, the soil is loosened to a depth of 8-10 cm. This should be done carefully, since the roots of the conifers are not deep.
- Every spring under the trees make complex mineral fertilizing. You can use special fertilizers for conifers or Kemiru universal. If fertilizers were applied when planting seedlings in a hole, then the first dressing of plantings should be done only after two years.
- In spring and autumn, trees undergo sanitary pruning, removing damaged and dry branches. Before the growth of shoots begins, it is possible to form a crown, cutting off for this no more than a third of the shoot. Formative pruning stimulates the growth of new branches and helps maintain the shape of the bush. The first forming pruning should be carried out in the second or third year of the tree's life.
Thuja preparing for winter
In order for the plant to prepare for the dormant period, in autumn it is necessary stop top dressing and watering. Although some species of thuja tolerate minor winter cold, it is better to cover young shrubs for the winter with fern. To do this, the tree is highly spudded, sprinkled with a thick layer of peat near the trunk circle, after which the plant is covered with spruce branches.
Around the mature trees, the plot must be sprinkled with mulch, and the plants themselves do not cover. However, it is recommended that the branches of the bushes be tied with twine so that the snow that has fallen in the winter does not break them.
During frosts on the bark of conifers can cracks form, which in spring should be covered with garden var. In spring, thuja is covered with non-woven material that will protect the needles and branches from the spring strong sun.
Adult tree transplant
Conifers have a superficial root system, so replanting them is quite easy. Transplant Procedure:
- From the trunk you need to retreat 40-50 cm and with the help of a sharp shovel to pierce the soil around the bush.
- Carefully pry off the tree along with the outlined circle and the near-stem section.
- Take the plant out of the ground, put on a wheelbarrow and transport it to a new landing site.
- Place the tree in a pre-prepared hole with a lump of earth, sprinkle with soil mixture and water abundantly.
Big trees to stick follows the year before the transplant. During this time, new roots will grow inside the circle and when the plant is extracted, the soil will not fall apart. In the new place, with proper care, transplanted arborvitae take root quickly.
Coniferous plants can be propagated by seeds and cuttings.
For this method of reproduction in early autumn, you should collect cones. The seed suitable for sowing should be brown in color and easily fall out of the cones.
Freshly harvested planting material must first be stratified under snow. To do this, in the fall they wrap it in a rag, dig it up with earth on the garden bed, cover it with dry leaves and a heater. In the spring, planting material is taken out, poured into a container with sand and placed for two months in the vegetable section of the refrigerator.
Seeds ready for planting should be planted in a soil mixture consisting of sand, peat and sod land (2: 1: 1). For sowing, grooves are made with a distance from each other of about six centimeters. Seeds are placed in grooves, lightly sprinkled with earth, sprayed from the spray gun. Crates with crops are covered with glass or polyethylene and placed in a warm place.
Thuja seeds should germinate approximately forty days after planting. After that, you will need to remove the film and place them in a well-lit, cool place. Seedlings will need to be transplanted to the site only in the third year, therefore, as the plants grow, the soil mixture is poured into the seedling tank. In the spring of next year, the grown bushes are transplanted into separate containers and put out on the street in the warm season. In winter, they are grown in a cool room with an air temperature in the range + 15 ... +18 degrees. They will be ready for landing at a permanent place only in the third year in the fall.
You can cut thuja in June, choosing for this two or three-year-old lignified shoots with a length of at least 25 cm. As the cuttings, you can also use the branches of the current year, which should be semi-lignified and have a length of 10 to 20 cm.
Cuttings should be torn off with a heel, treated with Heterouxin and planted in a container filled with a mixture of sand, peat and sod land (1: 1: 1). Before planting the cuttings, it is recommended to shed the soil with a warm solution of potassium permanganate.
The planted shoot is covered with a plastic bag, under which there will be high humidity, necessary for better rooting of the cuttings. It is necessary to ensure that the soil is always moist, but not wet, so as it dries, it is better not to water it, but to spray it.
Rooted cuttings are aired every day and accustomed to the open air. In the fall they wrestle them with spruce branches, and when the temperature drops to -5 degrees, they are additionally insulated with a film.
Thuja pests and diseases
When growing conifers, problems may arise that most often arise for the following reasons:
- attack by pathogens or pests;
- weakening after wintering;
- wrong place for a tree;
- improper fit;
- mistakes in leaving.
Of the pests for thuja, leafworms, aphids, thuja moths, spider mites, scabies and leafworm damaging bark are dangerous. To prevent plants from being affected by pests, it is recommended that trees be sprayed with insecticides for preventive purposes every spring. This should be done twice with an interval of two weeks.
Bacterial and fungal infections are manifested by brown spots or yellowness of needles. In order not to start the disease and not destroy the plant, it is necessary to conduct a double treatment with fungicidal preparations with an interval of 14 days.
Planting according to the instructions and proper care will be the key to good growth of healthy trees. Since the thuja is the most unpretentious coniferous plant, even a novice gardener can cope with its cultivation at his site.