Plants that accompany crops but are not cultivated by humans are called weeds or weeds. Many of them are carried by birds and animals or enter the soil along with the seed.
Weeds have a negative impact on the quality and quantity of the crop. Weeds are divided into annual, biennial and perennial. They are also monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous, which is determined by the structure of the seed. Perennial dicotyledonous weeds have a more stable root system, and therefore receive more nutrients. It is very difficult to deal with such weeds.
In order to carry out all agrotechnical measures aimed at combating weeds on time, we suggest that you consider the list of dicotyledonous weeds with photos and names, to which a short description will be attached.
Annual and biennial weeds
In the fight against annual weeds, it is important to prevent their multiplication by means of seeds. But in order to avoid this, it is important to know how and when weeds develop. Below we will look at the most common types of dicotyledonous annual and biennial weeds.
A weed with a stem of medium height - up to 90 cm. It sprouts in May, and the flowering period falls on June - September. It blooms in blue, blue and purple. From one flower of cornflowers, up to 1.5 thousand seeds usually ripen.
Seeds can be dormant in the ground for ten years and germinate under favorable conditions. Cereal crops are especially affected by cornflowers. Belongs to the class of cereal weeds.
This is a super-productive weeds. One flower produces about 3000 seeds with high viability - up to 10 years. The growth of an adult weed is 1 m. It usually accompanies the planting of legumes, oil and vegetable plants.
This weeds are also called the sungazer. The plant reaches a height of 0.5 m. The root system is well developed. Milkweed leaves are elongated. It blooms throughout the summer, the first shoots appear in May. As a result, over such a long period, a lot of seeds are formed, and even with low germination of the weed, if the gardener does not act, his property will very quickly overgrow with milkweed.
Euphorbia usually grows among legumes, grains and forage crops.
There are 2 types of sow thistle - field and garden. The list of troubles for summer residents includes precisely the second type of weed. The growth of this weeds is 30–100 cm. The leaves are pointed, toothed, long, rich green. The stem is hollow. Baskets of flowers of a thistle reach a diameter of 3.5 cm. Reproduction of a thistle is due to the formation of root suckers.
Quinoa and Mary
These weeds love loose fertile soil rich in nitrogen, with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. Potato fields are the best place to grow them. The height of the bush can be up to 1.5 m. The appearance of these two types of weeds is an excellent indicator of soil fertility.
The best conditions for the growth of this dicotyledonous weed are in row crops, vineyards and orchards. At the same time, nightshade does not take root in the sowing of spikelets, provided that the field has a normal density of standing of cultivated plants.
In case of insufficient care of cultivated plants and plantings, the soil will be clogged with nightshade seeds.
Warning! Nightshade is a dangerous poisonous plant.
Perennial dicotyledonous weeds
Perennial weeds cause even more damage to crops than annuals and biennials. Crop plants become more vulnerable to disease and insect infestation. The most popular perennial dicotyledonous weeds are dandelion and wormwood.
This weed can be seen on almost every lawn. Elongated dandelion leaves diverge from the root outlet. A distinctive feature of the plant is its bright yellow flowers, which are very attractive to bees. The seeds are spread quickly by the wind. Dandelions grow on lawns, in fodder and garden crops.
It is a tall plant that looks more like a shrub. The first shoots appear in mid-spring. The flowering period is from July to August. Even under a layer of soil equal to 10 cm, seeds can germinate. During the flowering period, tens of thousands of seeds are formed from one bush. These cereal and dicotyledonous weeds infest not only cereals, but also garden crops and legumes.
How to deal with dicotyledonous weeds
There are two methods of controlling annual and perennial dicotyledonous weeds: mechanical and chemical.
The bottom line is to remove weeds, both underground and above-ground. In small areas, this can be done by hand or using a root remover, hoe, or flat cutter.
The control of dicotyledonous weeds in large fields is usually carried out with walk-behind tractors. If you cover the aisles with a special material that does not allow light to pass through, then you can effortlessly reduce the number of weeds in the beds.
For perennial and annual dicotyledonous weeds, chemicals called herbicides can be used. Such preparations can be used before sowing crops or before emergence. But to achieve the best result, it is better to treat the soil with herbicides after harvesting. These funds penetrate into the soil, thereby destroying monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weeds, since their root dies.
For the destruction of dicotyledonous plants, drugs such as Command and Pioneer are used. There are two types of postemergence herbicides: selective and continuous.
Important! Continuous chemicals will remove not only weeds, but also seedlings from your beds.
In a number of continuous herbicides:
Among the selective herbicides that kill dicotyledonous weeds:
- Lapis Lazuli SP.
- Lontrel 300.
All recommendations for the use of the above preparations for the control of weeds are indicated by the manufacturer on the packaging. If you follow these recommendations exactly, then the products will not harm your health. Of course, the least dangerous is the mechanical method of cleaning the garden and lawn from weeds. However, this method is not always effective. In some cases, it is better to carry out timely treatment of the land with herbicides, especially if we consider that the seeds of some weed plants can be in the ground for at least 10 years and after this time, germinate.