Fewer people perceive a summer cottage only as a place of garden work. It becomes a recreation and living area, all year round. And, of course, every person wants to make him not only comfortable, but also aesthetic.
Landscaping will come to the rescue, which includes the whole range of works on the design and arrangement of your suburban area.
The first thing you need to start design - This is to determine the capabilities of your site:
- soil and groundwater level;
- location on the cardinal points;
- weather conditions, wind rose, precipitation.
Appointment and legal restrictions
If you got the allotment back from the USSR, then it could have an area of 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, and 15 acres. The first three were reserved for gardening needss, and you can’t build capital buildings on them.
Plot 10, 20 and so on - up to 50 acres may have the status of a summer cottage or even the so-called "IZHS and LPH" - that is, for individual housing construction and personal subsidiary plots.
If your summer cottage is located on the lands of settlements and is intended for this purpose, you can even get registration there. The main thing is not to confuse "LPH" with agricultural land, on which you can only deal with the cultivation or processing of agricultural products.
This is regulated by SNIPs and fire regulations. So, a residential building cannot be positioned closer than 3 meters from the country road and 5 meters from the highway.
The distance from the neighboring fence cannot be less than 3 meters, from a tall tree - 4 meters, low - 3, to a bath - 8 meters. The distance from the toilet with the cesspool to the well may not be less than 8 meters.
The law regulates even the distance from bushes to the fence - not less than 1 meter.
In addition, there are restrictions set by local authorities. To learn about them, it is not necessary to go to the municipality: now in most regions this information is available online. So, if you decide to raise a site and put a fence on it between you and your neighbor, you should remember that the height of the fence will be measured on the lower section of the neighbor, think he is suing you.
For measurements you will need a long tape measure and a level with a staff. You can measure the length and width yourself, and for leveling you will need an assistant, a pen and a sheet of paper. Elevation is best done after 5 - 10 meters. The measurement data should be applied to the paper, and then draw up a plan with contour lines. Be sure to tie the heights to the road and the roadside ditch. The latter will be very necessary for you when designing the drainage, and if you have a house for permanent residence - and for removing stormwater and treated sewage.
With the initial data in hand, you can begin to place the main objects on the master plan. First you need to plan them horizontally, that is, taking into account the restrictions, determine the location of a country house, garage, bath (if any) and other capital buildings. Do not forget about communicationsthat will relate to the house - for example, a local sewage treatment plant. Since it is designed together with the house, it is worth considering the distance from it to the fence and the ditch.
No less (and even more) important will be vertical planning. It is worth telling more about it.
Here we will need a plan-plan with a topography, and at the same time data on at what level the water lies. You will have to decide onwhether you will raise the site if it does not have a slope, as well as with the layout options with a slope when it is.
There are a number of design decisions.that relate to the heights in the area, for example:
- completely horizontal platform;
- plot with a slight slope;
- terrace layout.
Of course, the concept of "small bias" has its limitations, but you need to be guided primarily by such considerations as the depth of the foundation and communications, as well as the area of your summer residence. Because it is one thing to plan a plot of 6 acres, when there are neighbors beyond its three borders, and quite another - 15 acres on the edge of the village.
The desire to make the territory horizontal at any cost is not always justified. For example, when the difference is more than a meter, the construction of a retaining wall on the border of your land ownership may be dear pleasureand when you do it poorly, then after the first winter your building will simply collapse, and it’s good if it’s not on the head of a neighbor or passers-by. But the laying of terraces can give your site an interesting look, the main thing here is to properly arrange them.
Relief snapping can also significantly reduce excavation.
Determining the height of green spaces
For a comfortable stay in the house, you need to consider such a thing as insolation. Agree, few people want to live in a dark house. It is necessary not only to correctly position the house on the sunny side, but also to take into account the height of trees and shrubsthat you want to land on the site.
The growth outlook should be adequately assessed from a practical point of view. With further landscaping, you will need to take into account the need of other plants in the light, because among them there are both light-loving and shade-tolerant.
It is carried out depending on your preferences. On the site you can place:
- artificial pond, even with a fountain;
- a bath;
- beds with greens and a greenhouse;
- elements of landscape art.
And this is far from all. The first rule here is to adequately assess the area of the site and avoid such motivation as "letting dust in the eyes of neighbors." Because your work will not be neighbors at all.
In any case, on the site You can place a recreation area, flower beds and paths, as well as a playground. Another thing, in what form it will exist. For example, on 6 acres it would hardly be appropriate to build a separate gazebo, but a terrace adjacent to the house from the backyard would be a great solution. The mini-stadium will not fit in 10 acres, but in 15 and more - completely.
Not only the area of your allotment matters, but also its shape. The square area of 8 acres is not the same as the same 8 acres with a curved border.
In general, the size at which it is "convenient" to plan the site is 10 acres and above. But since these areas are not dachas, but quite residential houses, the landscape design of 10 acres can be more complicated than the same 8. So, in the place where the septic tank or VOCs are located, you can’t build anything, and even make paths not worth it. But there should be a porch for him on a cesspool machine, and this "eats up" a part of the square, which you often want to ennoble somehow. But it turns out that, apart from the lawn and flower beds with annual plants, nothing can be placed there.
Here are some guidelines for zoning:
- The recreation area is best located away from the big road, if it passes near your site.
- Arrangement of an artificial reservoir will cause you less problems if you make it in the lowest place of the site.
- When planning a barbecue area, be aware of fire safety.
- Between all areas of the site should be convenient communication. Think in advance where you will place walkways, stairs and technical walkways.
- If there will be lighting on the site, determine the location of the cable. The cable should not run where cars will stand.
Beginning of work
By the time you decide to do landscape design, you should have at least a box at home and installed underground utilities. After that, you can begin excavation work.
First of all, we remove the soil with weeds - they will greatly ruin your life later. If you feel sorry for the land, you can punch it at the back of the plot. It is better to start work at the end of summer or in the fall, so that in the next season it will be engaged in landscaping.
The straight section can be leveled with a bulldozer, adding sand and gravel if necessary. Sometimes the backfill becomes relevant: for example, if you have a high level of groundwater or you need to raise the site to match the depth of the foundation to the calculations.
Slopes on the site must be strengthened. Gentle slopes are strengthened with geogrids, terraces with retaining walls. Do not make them too straight and tall - this will lead to higher cost of work. In addition, curved chaotically located terraces look better.
The material for strengthening the terraces can be stone, concrete, logs (in this case, it will be necessary to treat part of the logs with an antiseptic and use instead of piles).
In parallel with the relief, we install a drainage system and storm sewer. The latter is important if you have a close-up clay layer close to the site and the water does not leave the area well during rains. The slope of the storm pipes should be at least 2 cm per meter, and they need to be removed to the ditch. The depth of the drainage must be at least 70 cm from the surface of the earth. Drainage pipes (with holes) and stormwater are laid in rubble and geotextiles.
Landscaping and electrification
Further work should not be started until the seasonal permafrost has finally receded. This applies not only to planting, but also paths and sites.
Paths, a playground, a barbecue area and a gazebo should be done first. This will help you adjust the original plan, and also do not have to spoil the green spaces.
Work on laying cables must be carried out in parallel with these works.
When backfilling fertile land, consider which plants you will plant. So, moisture-loving better take root on flat places where water can linger. But on the slopes and terraces, mountain plants grow better, which will be a good reason to make one or another version of the rock garden.
By the way, you should not consider the latter as a mandatory element of landscape design. In some cases, it will be not only difficult to implement, but also inappropriate. Believe me, sometimes simple rows of rose hips, rabatki and rose gardens, lilacs and barberries can create a very cozy atmosphere. True, it is better to be careful with barberry: during flowering, the smell from it goes not very pleasant.
There are plant species that can be grown even in shaded places - for example, geranium, fern and host.