Large poultry farms prefer to keep highly specialized breeds, more precisely, hybrids, chickens. This makes it easier to calculate the ration and maintain the livestock. Hybrids are designed for maximum productivity, and staff are not attached to them. For private traders, it is often the other way around: they cannot send their old laying hens to the soup, because they managed to become attached to her. In addition, private owners often want to breed a chicken herd on their own, and industrial hybrids are not adapted to such conditions. At best, the owner of the hybrid will need an expensive incubator, at worst, a duplicate population of non-specialized chickens capable of incubating eggs. Therefore, for private ownership, meat and egg breeds of chickens are much more convenient.
These breeds of a universal direction, in contrast to the factory ones, were bred naturally for use in villages. If there are relatively few specialized hybrids, then eyes run up from the abundance of breeds of meat and egg chickens. Many of them are not only relatively highly productive, but also beautiful.
Variety of breeds
When choosing a breed for personal use, a private owner usually fluctuates between egg and universal chickens. For eggs, they take basically all the same factory hybrids. If the performance of the hybrids is about the same, then it is already difficult to understand which of the proposed breeds of meat and egg chickens is better. Several factors have to be taken into account at once: egg production, early meat maturity, adaptation to the climate of a particular region. Moreover, you have to choose the breed of meat and egg chickens by photos and names. Usually few of the neighbors have the right breeds for testing. The choice is made taking into account the priority requirements.
By origin, the Yurlovskaya vociferous is classified as a universal breed, since it was bred in the Oryol region by crossing Chinese meat and fighting breeds with the local livestock of aboriginal layers. In reality, the main advantage of the breed (or how to look at it) is the crowing of a rooster. It was by screaming that the Yurlov vocals were selected. The higher the quality of the cock crow, the more expensive the cock was.
Because of this, there is a strong variation in the live weight of males in the breed. Yurlovsky vociferous weighs according to various sources from 3.5 to 5.5 kg. Laying hens have more consolidated weight, in the range of 3 - 3.5 kg. Yurlovski vocalisers have low egg production - on average, about 150 eggs per year. But the eggs are quite large and weigh from 60 g. Two-yolk ones can reach 95 g.
The modern livestock of the Yurlovskaya vocal is small and is mainly used as a genetic reserve for breeding new breeds. Although they can be found in the private farmsteads of cock-singing lovers.
In this case, of all meat and egg chickens, those that carry a lot of eggs are chosen, but this choice can only be made according to the description. Not a single photo can tell you the level of egg production of the breed. To obtain egg products, there are several popular breeds of chickens for meat and egg production.
Australorp black and white
In Australorp, meat and egg chickens, there are two lines: one closer to the meat direction, the other to the egg production.
The description of chickens of the meat and egg breed Australorp black-and-white indicates that this is more a line of egg-laying orientation than a universal breed. The weight of a chicken is closer to the weight of an egg laying hen and reaches 2.2 kg. The rooster weighs 2.6 kg. This line carries up to 220 eggs weighing 55 g per year.
The egg of black-and-white australorpes is distinguished by high fertility, and chickens are high hatchability and safety. Since this is not a hybrid, but a breed, black-and-white australorpes can be bred on their own. Unfortunately, according to reviews, this breed of meat and egg chickens is not particularly cold-resistant and requires keeping in insulated chicken coops in winter.
Adler meat and egg chickens in the photo often already look like ordinary egg layers.
This phenomenon is natural, since originally bred as a "village" universal chicken, today the Adler breed is gradually reorienting towards increasing egg production. So far, Adler chickens cannot boast of a high egg production, although individual individuals of their egg line can already lay up to 250 eggs per season.
The brooding instinct in Adleroks is very poorly developed, like in any egg-laying breed. In addition, the weight of birds of the egg Adler line approaches the standard weight of industrial layers - 2 kg.
Old-type Adler silver eggs lay much less: 160 - 180 eggs per season. But the weight of the birds is much higher. Laying hen weight up to 3 kg, rooster up to 4 kg.
Since when purchasing chickens or hatching eggs, it is not known which Adler line will be purchased, these are not those meat and egg breed chickens that should be chosen for a win-win investment of money.
California gray chickens
They came to the USSR back in 1963 and took root as a "chicken-pock". These chickens can be called universal only at a stretch. Is that due to a lower egg production than egg breeds. The weight of a laying hen is almost the same as that of an egg laying hen and is 2 kg. Rooster weight 3 kg. They carry 200 eggs per year with a relatively low egg weight of 58 g. In fact, these chickens cannot be recommended with a clear conscience for breeding in private farmsteads: they have not enough meat, egg-laying hens also carry more eggs. The only advantage seen in poultry is tender lean meat even in adult chickens. But in small quantities.
Priority for meat
If meat is more needed than eggs, when choosing a breed of meat and egg chickens, you can focus on the photo and description.
The breed is a universal direction, but it has a bias towards meat productivity. Outwardly, a layman is unlikely to distinguish the Kyrgyz breed from the Californian. They have the same color, and the weight does not differ much. The Kyrgyz chicken exceeds the Californian chicken in body weight and eggs, but is inferior in annual egg production. A Kyrgyz laying hen weighs an average of 2.5 kg, a rooster - 3.4. The annual number of eggs 150 - 170 pieces on average 58 g.
Kyrgyz chicken is distinguished by high egg fertility, good preservation of young stock - up to 97% and high preservation of adult chickens - 85%.
The breed was bred for the conditions of mountainous Kyrgyzstan and feels good in a dry hot climate, perfectly adapted to life in high mountain regions. The disadvantage of chickens is the "fear" of high air humidity and low egg productivity. But work is still underway to increase productivity.
The second line of the meat and egg breed of chickens with a photo of a rooster, which shows that this line is relatively heavy, compared to the black-and-white australorp.
According to the ratio of body weight / number of eggs, it is one of the best meat and egg breeds of chickens. Its egg production is slightly lower than that of the black-and-white (up to 200 pieces per year), but the eggs are slightly larger (57 g on average). But the body weight of these chickens is much larger: a rooster up to 4 kg, a laying hen up to 3 kg. The exactingness of the conditions of detention is the same as that of the black-and-white line.
A very original and profitable breed with a decent weight. Maran laying hens weigh up to 3.2 kg. In a rooster, the live weight reaches 4 kg. Moreover, chickens grow very quickly and gain 2.5 - 3.5 kg by the age of one year. The egg production of marani is not very high. Layers in the first productive year carry an average of 140 pieces. large eggs. The dignity of the breed is large eggs of a beautiful chocolate color. Chickens are popular with experiment enthusiasts. When marans are crossed with other breeds of chickens, the offspring carry eggs with a color of varying degrees of intensity. In addition, the eggs of marans are not inferior to the products of egg industrial crosses and weigh 65 g. The disadvantages include just the advertised larger weight of eggs, since this means that a two-yolk egg is laid, suitable only for food. Accordingly, if you want to breed marans from the very beginning, some of the eggs will have to be rejected. And this is taking into account the fact that the egg production of marans is not very high anyway.
Faverol, rare in Russia, belongs to universal chickens. Originally from France, chicken faverol is considered unpretentious in terms of maintenance and diet. This is a large bird with a maximum live weight of a rooster of 4 kg. Chickens can gain up to 3.5 kg. Egg productivity is low: no more than 200 eggs per year. Due to the insignificant egg productivity, the breed is increasingly becoming decorative. This is justified. Many other chickens fit for meat, but more trivial in appearance.
Unpretentiousness to conditions of detention
Unpretentious breeds of meat and egg chickens according to the description and photos are also unlikely to be chosen, since unpretentiousness is often very conditional. If in the description of the breed of Hungarian origin it is written that it can withstand frosty winters, then it must be borne in mind that these are Hungarian, not Siberian winters. Unpretentiousness to feed can also be relative: a chicken of any breed lives on pasture, but its productive characteristics are almost zero. To obtain products from this chicken, it must be fed with high quality grain feed.
The birds of a very original color bred in the USA can be safely called one of the best breeds of chickens in the meat and egg direction. These birds not only have a decent weight: up to 4 kg for a rooster and up to 3 kg for a chicken, but also a decent egg production for a universal direction: up to 180 eggs per year. The disadvantage is the low weight of the eggs, which weigh 55 g on average. In addition, wyandots are resistant to Russian frosts and are capable of sweeping throughout the winter if provided with sufficient daylight hours.
Thus, in addition to supplying the owner with tasty meat and winter eggs, Wyandots are also pleasing to the eye, walking around the yard during the day.
The main advantage of this Georgian breed is its unpretentiousness. Chickens do not differ in high live weight and egg production. Megrula was bred by crossing local aboriginal chickens with foreign meat breeds. The result, I must say frankly, is not encouraging. Laying hen weighs only 1.7 kg, male - 2.3 kg. Eggs per season - 160. Eggs are relatively small - 55 g. On top of all the shortcomings, the chickens are late maturing, they begin laying eggs at the age of more than six months.
However, if Megrula had only shortcomings, she would hardly have survived. Megrula has two types: east and west. East is closer to the egg direction with the corresponding weight of layers and roosters. The western one is closer to the meat and egg and the weight of this type of rooster reaches 2.8 kg. The live weight of the "western" chicken is 2.3 kg.
Megrulae are distinguished by fertility, high egg fertility, high safety of chickens and high safety of adult birds. Megrulu is bred for the sake of traditional Georgian dishes, which require juicy tender meat. In this regard, megrula is demanding on feed and is not suitable for farms where grain is the basis of the diet. Megrula requires a lot of succulent feed and corn.
In the Caucasus, Megrula should be kept on individual farms. It is not profitable for industrial farms.
Almost domestic meat and egg breed of chickens "Ushanki" in the photo look very original, even while still chickens.
Although the Ukrainian Ushanka can be called one of the best domestic breeds of meat and egg chickens, its number is very small today. Ukrainian Ushanka lays up to 180 eggs per year. Laying hen weighs up to 2.3 kg, rooster up to 3.5 kg. These chickens have a very well developed maternal instinct, thanks to which they free the owner from the worries of the incubator and electricity.
"Ushanki" are unpretentious in maintenance and are ready to be content with a small amount of feed. A bird of this breed is easy to distinguish from any other due to the tufts of feathers growing near the ear openings, smoothly turning into a beard.
According to the owners, these birds are absolutely not afraid of frost, their disposition is very calm. They themselves do not bully, but they do not give themselves offense. The almost complete disappearance of the Ukrainian Ushanka can only be explained by the borders opened after the collapse of the Union and by the fashion for everything foreign, inherent in those times. However, the owners of Ushanoks, who managed to buy a purebred bird in the Russian Gene Pool, believe that this is an ideal chicken for private farmsteads.
But Faverol has feathered feet, Ushanka does not. Plus there are differences in body proportions.
Chickens were bred in the Caucasus and are intended for the southern regions of Russia. They are distinguished by high productivity and vitality. Roosters gain up to 4 kg of weight, layers up to 3 kg. Chickens are distinguished by a certain late maturity, bringing about 160 eggs in the first year. Unlike other chicken breeds, the Kotlyarevskys for the next year, egg production does not fall, but increases. At the peak of production, the Kotlyarevskaya layer can produce 240 eggs per year. At the same time, the eggs of Kotlyarevsky chickens are comparable to the products of industrial crosses, they weigh 60 - 63 g.
Kotlyarevsky chickens are highly resilient. After hatching, only 5% of young animals die from the egg.
Why mini chickens are beneficial
Mini-chickens first appeared in Russia, but quickly spread throughout Europe, replacing traditional broilers in many farms. Mini chickens are essentially dwarf birds with short legs. Among them there are egg, meat and meat-egg lines. The color can be white, fawn and red. Whites, according to reviews, are not a meat and egg breed of chickens, but more egg-laying. Although the description usually states that all mini-chickens are meat. A colored breed of chickens belongs to mini-meat and egg.
The productive characteristics of this meat and egg breed of chickens are quite high. They begin to lay at 5 months and the weight of the egg is about 50 g. They can lay eggs weighing 75 - 97 g, but it is better to discard such birds from breeding. Large eggs contain several yolks. The egg weighing 97 g was three-yolk.
The weight of a 5-month-old rooster is 1.3 - 1.7 kg, which is quite comparable to that of a full-fledged large laying hen.
The dwarf gene affects the length of the limbs, but the body usually remains the same as in large individuals.
What are the advantages of this breed and why, according to reviews, it is one of the best breeds of meat and egg chickens:
- short legs do not allow you to spend a lot of energy on movement;
- due to the low need for movement, chickens consume less feed than their large relatives;
- eggs are almost the same size as eggs from large birds;
- high egg production among meat and egg breeds;
- fast weight gain;
- calm temperament, due to the same length of legs.
- unpretentiousness to living conditions and feed.
Also, the advantage of mini-chickens is the fact that this is a breed, not a hybrid. That is, during breeding, the owner receives a full-fledged chicken, which he can sell or leave for self-repair.
According to the owners of mini-chickens, these are the most unpretentious meat and egg chickens. The only thing that buyers can regret: they took few hatching eggs. The demand for this breed is growing, and a guaranteed purebred bird can be bought at the Gene Pool in Moscow.
Tsarskoye Selo breed group
While this group of meat and egg direction is still difficult to call a breed, but those poultry farmers for whom productivity is more important than purebred have already become interested in it. Tsarskoye Selo chicken is bred on the basis of three breeds: Poltava clay, Broiler 6 and New Hampshire. Thanks to the resulting very beautiful plumage, chickens of this breed group are often referred to as decorative ones, although their productive indicators are not inferior to the already established breeds of chickens of the universal direction.
The average weight of the Tsarskoye Selo layer is 2.4 kg. The rooster weighs on average 3 kilograms.Representatives of the Tsarskoye Selo breed group are rapidly gaining weight, and this pleases breeders who breed poultry for meat. Chickens are mid-maturing, rush from 5 months. The annual productivity of a laying hen is 180 eggs, weighing on average 60 g. The shells of eggs from Tsarskoye Selo chickens can vary from light to dark brown in color.
The undoubted advantages of this breed group include the fact that, despite the relatively high egg production, the chickens have not lost their incubation instinct. The Tsarskoye Selo chicken is also a good hen.
The breed group has good hatchability of chickens, which are born with red down.
Important! There are already 2 lines in the group.
The differences between the groups are in the shape of the ridge and the associated frost resistance. A line with a pink-shaped crest tolerates frost better than a line with a leaf-shaped one.
The purpose of breeding a new breed is suitability for breeding both in factories and in private yards. Therefore, even now the Tsarskoye Selo breed group is distinguished by its unpretentiousness to keeping conditions, good vitality and high endurance. Tsarskoye Selo chickens are able to overwinter in cold chicken coops, without stopping laying. This moment makes them promising for breeding in the northern regions of the country. Also, the breed group is distinguished by high resistance to diseases and good safety of the livestock.
The best of the best
Is there a hen that has a lot of weight, and bears a lot of eggs, and does not require a golden palace? Undemanding to the content has always distinguished the animals of "Soviet production", therefore it is necessary to look for such a chicken among the Russian representatives of the species "Banking jungle chicken".
The beginning of work on the Kuchin anniversary ones coincided with the end of Khrushchev's reign - the beginning of Brezhnev's reign. Breeding work continued until 1990, when the Kuchin Jubilees were finally registered as a breed. Since in those days products were produced in abundance only on paper, the Kuchin anniversary celebrations were supposed to provide support to the rural population in terms of supplying the villagers with meat and eggs.
So the village had to supply itself with meat itself. Grain for livestock feed was also sold to villagers in small quantities. And there was no compound feed in the modern sense at all. It was under such conditions that the Kuchin anniversary celebrations were created. The result obtained met expectations. Kuchin's jubilees are popular with practical villagers today. For a universal direction, this is a large hen: the weight of layers up to 3 kg, roosters up to 4 kg. Average egg production pcs. eggs per year. The Kuchinsky jubilee ones lay eggs by weight almost equal to those that produce industrial egg crosses.
Without exaggeration, another masterpiece of Soviet breeders, and even at a time when they knew almost nothing about genetics and treated it as a pseudo-science. Zagorsk salmon is considered the ideal chicken for rural conditions. She has only one drawback: due to the ability to extract the maximum amount of nutrients from the proposed feed, this chicken is prone to obesity.
Zagorsk chickens grow very quickly, gaining 1 kg of weight by 2 months. Adult chickens were fed up to 2.5 kg, males up to 3 kg, which negatively affected their egg production.
Zagorsk salmon is distinguished by late ripening. They begin to rush only after 7 months. Laying hens in normal condition are capable of producing up to 220 eggs per year.
From the above, we can conclude that among the large varieties there are the best meat and egg breeds of chickens: Kuchin anniversary, Ukrainian earflaps, Wyandot, Zagorsk salmon.
Each poultry breeder wants to take the best breed of chicken meat and egg direction, but which one will be the best for a particular owner of the poultry yard depends only on his preferences. Someone wants chickens to please the eye, someone is interested in exceptionally productive characteristics. You should not be guided by the reviews on the sites which of the breeds of meat and egg chickens is better. The experience of all poultry owners is different. When choosing a breed, you need to take into account your interests and your area of residence.