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Plum Manchurian beauty ripens in early autumn, which is just right for the main regions of its distribution - the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. A low-yielding tree gives tasty fruits of universal purpose, which is the reason for the popularity of the variety, which has not subsided for a century.
Breeding history of the variety
The seedlings of the Manchurian plum were selected by M. F. Ivanov, who lived in Manchuria at the beginning of the 20th century. A. Taratukhin sent the trees to the Far East in the late 1920s. Breeder N. N. Tikhonov has spread a promising variety.
It is believed that three types of plums took part in the formation of the Manchurian beauty variety: Chinese, Ussuri and Simona.
Description of plum variety Manchurian beauty
The fast-growing Manchurian tree is sometimes referred to as a shrub because there is no central conductor.
- The height is small, from 1.6 to 1.8–2 m.
- The rounded crown is dense, with brown-gray branches, curved brown shoots.
- On the bark of the Manchurian beauty plum, in addition to peeling, light lentils are characteristic.
- Another feature of the Manchurian plum wood is intensive bud formation, which leads to increased branching.
- Concave, pointed leaves in the shape of an ellipse, medium size, 11 x 4 cm, dark green, with a low sheen.
- The leaf blade, held on the petiole of an anthocyanin shade, has carved edges, the central vein is slightly bent downward.
- Small plum flowers Manchurian beauty are formed on bouquet twigs. The bud contains up to 3 flowers with white petals that bloom before the leaves.
- Manchurian fruits weigh 15–20 g, sometimes up to 30 g. They are round in shape, with a flattened base, a narrow deep funnel and a slightly pronounced abdominal suture.
Plums are firmly attached to short and thick stalks, but only until they are fully ripe. The skin is not very dense, thin, maroon with a bluish tinge. The pointed oblong bone is small, not completely separated from the pulp. A faint but attractive aroma emanates from the Manchurian beauty plum; the sweet and sour pulp is dense and juicy. The color of the cut fruit is yellow-green.
The invigorating taste of plums is explained by their biochemical composition:
- up to 9 mg of ascorbic acid per 100 g;
- 0.41% tannins;
- 8 to 15% sugar;
- 17-24% dry matter.
Since the late 40s, the Manchurian beauty plum variety in Siberia and the gardens of the Far East is also not uncommon. There were attempts to spread the persistent species of the Ussuri plum to the European part of the country, but the trees did not feel in comfortable conditions and now they are quite rare here.
Interesting! This plum is also called the Chuy beauty.
The largest-fruited among the Ussuri plums, the Manchurian beauty, has its own characteristics.
Drought resistance, frost resistance
The old variety, bred on the basis of the most cold-resistant type of plum - Ussuriyskaya, tolerates frosts down to -35 ... -40 ° C. It is not for nothing that many varieties of plums for the Far Eastern and Siberian regions have been created on its basis. The tree will withstand dry periods, but with watering the yield is better.
Plum pollinators Manchurian beauty
Many species of the Ussuri plum do not bear fruit without pollinators. Over the years of cultivation, the best trees for pollination of the Manchurian were determined:
- Ural golden;
- Ural red;
- Manchurian prunes.
In the garden, it is desirable to have 2-3 different species for better cross-pollination and a bountiful harvest.
The Manchurian plum blooms early, when the tree still has no leaves. The date depends on the region of cultivation, but the plum is often purchased as a highly decorative spring element of the garden. The fruits of the Manchurian beauty ripen in late summer - early autumn.
Productivity and fruiting
The variety is fast-growing. Plums are tried three years after planting a one-year-old tree. Productivity, subject to the availability of pollinators, is stable. Young plum gives 8-10 kg, adult - up to 20-24 kg.
Warning! Plums of the old variety are harvested 3-4 days before they are fully ripe, otherwise they quickly crumble.
Scope of berries
The fruits of the Manchurian plum are delicious to eat as a dessert, as well as in preparations. Compotes, preserves, jams are made from berries. The fruits are frozen, so that almost all valuable substances are preserved in them.
Disease and pest resistance
Plum is not very susceptible to characteristic lesions of the species:
- The Manchurian plum is resistant to rubella, a disease widespread in the Far East;
- does not lend itself to the scourge of plum trees - klyasterosporiosis;
- The beauty is little susceptible to infection by fungi that cause coccomycosis.
But the Manchurian plum is affected by moniliosis. It is necessary to carry out prevention against diseases and pests, adhere to the basic requirements of agricultural techniques for caring for the garden in autumn and spring.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Plum has undeniable advantages, thanks to which it has been in demand for a century:
- early fruiting;
- stable yield;
- delicious fruits;
- low susceptibility to a number of fungal diseases;
- frost resistance;
- drought resistance.
According to the characteristics of the variety, the Manchurian beauty plum is a valuable breeding material that conveys special characteristics to seedlings.
At the same time, the Manchurian plum has its drawbacks:
- the need for regular pruning due to the rapid growth of the crown.
Planting and caring for a plum Manchurian beauty
The beauty is unpretentious in favorable climatic conditions, you just need to choose the right time and place of planting with loamy or soddy-podzolic soil, close to neutral in acidity.
Spring is the best time to move plums in harsh climates. Autumn planting threatens with freezing of a seedling that has not taken root in a short period.
Choosing the right place
Growing a Manchurian beauty plum will be successful if the tree is located in a bright, sunny place. A hole is dug on a hill or southern slope, but not in the lowlands, where cold air stagnates. The seedling is not placed next to a building where a lot of snow is applied, because Beauty's branches are brittle.
What crops can and cannot be planted nearby
Plum safely tolerates the neighborhood with an apple tree and garden shrubs at a distance of at least 3 m.
- A tall pear, especially from the south, reduces the amount of sunlight.
- Also, low plums should not be planted near decorative deciduous and coniferous trees.
Important! Plum roots in a place with stagnant water can blow out.
Selection and preparation of planting material
One-year-old seedlings with fresh, elastic branches and swollen buds are purchased. The roots should be fibrous and moist. A few hours before planting, the seedlings are placed in a clay solution.
The pit is prepared in advance by laying drainage, adding the necessary substrate and fertilizers.
- A mound is made from the soil in the pit, a peg is hammered in to support the seedling.
- Set a tree on a mound, spreading the roots.
- The root collar protrudes 4–6 cm above the ground.
- They fill up the hole, compact the earth, make a circular furrow for irrigation.
- Pour 1-1.5 buckets of water, put mulch on the trunk circle.
Plum follow-up care
- The Manchurian beauty plum saplings are provided with loosening and watering to the depth of the roots.
- The next spring, they begin to form a longline crown, which is created over the course of 2-3 years.
- Old or damaged shoots are also cut off.
- They are fed with NPK complex, organic matter in spring, summer and before winter, mulching the trunk circle.
- Seedlings for the winter are protected from rodents with a net, agrofibre or paper.
Attention! Plum, placed on a loose mound, will not suffer from damping.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
The tops are dry, as if burnt, rotten fruits
Removal of diseased parts, adherence to agricultural practices
Gum growths near the cracks
Cleaning the wound with a garden pitch
Trimming with a clean and sharp tool
Caterpillars spoil young shoots and fruits
Fruits with larvae
Autumn garden cleaning
Plum Manchurian beauty will not only give delicious fruits, but also delight with spectacular flowering. Gardeners of Siberia and the Urals appreciate the Beauty for her endurance and resistance to diseases. Uncomplicated care, low-lying fruits, decorative effect and stable fruiting are the features of an unpretentious variety.
Malyartsev Valery Ivanovich, 35 years old, Korkino
I planted a plum together with a pollinator, Uralskaya red. Another cultivar without a name is growing nearby. Plums bear fruit well, already over 10 years old. I like that they are all disease resistant, do not require special care. The main work in the garden is in autumn and early spring. It is necessary to completely clear the area from volunteers, leaves, remove broken branches and close up the wounds with pitch. And in the spring I process trees and currants with copper sulfate. This is sufficient protection against pests that Beauty overwintered in the garden.
Neslyutkin Yuri Igorevich, 46 years old, Khabarovsk region
We can see the Manchu beauty in every garden. The harvest from the bush is small, but the plums are delicious, ripen in August. In order not to fall off and not crack, it is necessary to have time to collect them still unripe. Most often they are processed for jam or liqueurs. They are kept in the refrigerator for up to 10 days. Watering plum trees will ensure good fruit not only this year, but also the next season. They are well poured once a month - so that moisture reaches the bulk of the roots, to a depth of 35–45 cm.