Advice

Sowing dates for peppers for seedlings in Siberia

Sowing dates for peppers for seedlings in Siberia


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Despite the fact that growing heat-loving peppers in Siberia is difficult, many gardeners successfully harvest. Of course, for this it is necessary to fulfill a number of conditions, ranging from the correct choice of a vegetable variety, ending with the preparation of a place for growing. It is important to know when to plant peppers for seedlings in Siberia in order to get fruits in this climatic zone.

What determines the planting time of pepper

In order to correctly calculate the time for sowing pepper, you need to know: how long does the process of germination of grains, seedling growth, the appearance of color and fruits, as well as the desired period of the beginning of the harvest take.

The time when to plant seeds depends on:

  1. From the place where the pepper will grow to the ripening of the crop: in an open field, a greenhouse or a greenhouse. It is necessary to transplant the pepper to a permanent place when it is not yet blooming (on average, at the age of 60 days from the start of germination). Peppers begin to be planted when the soil is warmed up to a temperature of at least 15 degrees. In a greenhouse, this will happen earlier than in a greenhouse, in the very last place the earth will reach the desired temperature mark in the open field. Accordingly, it is necessary to start germinating seeds for greenhouses earlier than for a greenhouse or open ground (approximately two weeks).
  2. From the early maturity of the pepper variety. Super-early varieties begin to bear fruit in the period up to 100 days from the emergence of the sprout, early ripening - at 100-120 days, mid-ripening - after 4 months, late - after 5 months. Due to the fact that in Siberia, sunny days are not enough for growing late-ripening varieties of pepper, it is worth choosing early or mid-season varieties for planting.

When choosing the date for planting peppers for seedlings, the following average indicators should be taken into account:

  1. The appearance of the first leaf occurs in the period from 15 to 20 days from the moment of germination.
  2. The bud appears on the 45-50 day.
  3. Pepper begins to bloom in the period from 60 to 100 days and lasts about a week for each flower.
  4. The first fruit ripens one month after the pepper has bloomed (a total of 80 to 130 days from sprouting).

An example of calculating the time for sowing pepper seeds: For planting, there is a variety that bears fruit in four months from the start of germination, the harvest is planned to be obtained from August 1. To calculate the date of planting seeds, it is necessary to count from August 1 in the opposite direction 120 days. It turns out April 3. From this date, you need to count back another 14 days. The required date is March 20.

Attention! Therefore, on March 20, you need to start germinating seeds, and on April 3, plant them to get seedlings.

The weather in Siberia is not stable, and a situation may arise when the seedlings are ready for transplanting into a greenhouse, and the earth temperature is below +14. If you wait for favorable conditions, when to plant, the pepper will outgrow, which means that it will be worse to take root in a new place and will not have time to bear fruit in the short summer period.

Advice! Sow seeds in three stages at intervals of 5-7 days. So, by the time the optimum ground temperature is established, you are guaranteed to have seedlings of a suitable age for planting.

When planting seeds, the lunar calendar is very popular among gardeners. In accordance with it, you need to plant pepper on those days when the moon is growing.

Pepper varieties suitable for growing in Siberia

Pepper needs warmth and light. In Siberian conditions, these indicators are clearly not enough for a good yield of pepper. Recently, however, varieties more resistant to frost have been developed.

Pepper varieties that have proven themselves well when grown in Siberia:

  • Early ripe: "Siberian Prince", "Tusk";
  • Mid-season: "Siberian format", "Siberian felt boot", "Vostochny bazaar", "Siberian bonus";
  • For open ground: "Gift of Moldova", "Cardinal", "Orange Miracle".

When buying seeds from the store, it is important not to lose sight of their shelf life (usually up to four years). Better when the seeds are fresh, because the longer they are stored, the less germination.

Useful video on when to plant peppers:

Preparing for landing

Before planting peppers, you need to competently prepare seeds, soil and containers for seedlings.

Seed preparation

  • It is necessary to remove all seeds unsuitable for sowing: with visible damage, frail. There are several ways to identify quality grains. The fastest: prepare a saline 5% solution, place seeds in it for 10 minutes - weak ones will remain on the surface. The best way: at any time (before the onset of the sowing season) plant a few seeds from a bag for a sample, without germinating them. As a result, by how many seeds have sprouted, it will be seen whether the material is of high quality. Also, you will know exactly when to sow and how long it will take for the sprout to appear;
  • Grains suitable for planting must be processed to avoid fungal infections. For this, the seeds are placed in a gauze bag and soaked in a thick manganese solution for half an hour. After processing, the seeds are thoroughly washed without removing them from the gauze. Seeds of some companies are sold already processed, you should carefully read the annotation;
  • Start germinating seeds (if you are not sure that the seeds will sprout). Place the seeds (separately from each other) between a double-folded damp cloth. Cover the seeds so that the liquid does not evaporate too quickly. Place the seeds in a warm (+25 degrees) place. It is necessary to ensure that the seeds do not germinate by more than 1 mm, otherwise the tip can easily come off during sowing. If this happens, the harvest may not be obtained.

Other ways to increase seed germination

  • Heat activation. A month before planting, you need to put the seeds in a linen bag and hang it near the battery, or put it in another warm place;
  • Soaking in melt water. After processing with potassium permanganate, the seeds are placed in thawed (warm) water for a day. Then you need to put them in a saucer and in a plastic bag, previously wrapped in gauze. Cover the bag, but do not tie it so that there is air access. Place for germination in a warm place (just not on the battery). Seeds germinate in a week on average.
  • Soaking in ash. In water with wood ash (in the proportion of one tablespoon per liter), the seeds are placed for one to two days. Further, germinate in the same way as when soaking in melt water.
  • Oxygen saturation. It is necessary to immerse the seeds in water, and with the help of a compressor (an aquarium is suitable), supply air there. Process two weeks before planting within 24 hours.
  • Hardening of seeds. It is necessary to process the grains with a nutrient solution, wrap them in a damp cloth and place them in the refrigerator for two days (lower section). Then leave it in the room for 12 hours, and put it back in the refrigerator for two days.

How to prepare potting mix

Pepper seeds require loose, fertile soil to grow properly. You can take ready-made soil for peppers, sift and add pre-washed sand (in a ratio of 0.5 / 3 sand to earth). You can mix the soil yourself: one part of the washed sand and two each of peat and humus (or rotted compost). Instead of sand, you can put ash. All components must be mixed thoroughly. Fertilizer can be added.

Many sources recommend: when to plant - to disinfect the soil (using folk methods or with the help of special preparations). However, this issue raises a lot of controversy about the appropriateness of the procedure, since, along with the pathogenic flora, the useful one is destroyed. If you carry out disinfection, it should be done in a container for seedlings. Sowing seeds should be started one day after soil treatment.

To prevent stagnation of water in the soil, the container must be with holes through which excess liquid will be removed.

Important! For sowing pepper, you should not take soil from the beds on which vegetables (especially nightshade) or flowers grew.

The sod should be taken from the land on which perennial grasses grew. Humus is best used three years ago.

Sowing seeds

Peppers have a weak root system: the roots break easily and grow poorly, as a result, the seedlings are difficult to transplant. Therefore, it is advisable to plant seeds immediately in the container where they will grow before transplanting into the ground. It is good if the container is at least 0.5 liters and 11 cm high.

When planting, you need to make sure that the seed sprout is directed upward. It is necessary to cover the seeds with soil at least 3 mm., Otherwise the root system will form too close to the surface.

It is necessary to plant in soil, the temperature of which is not less than 25 and not more than 30 degrees. Drizzle with warm (preferably melted) water, cover with transparent material and place in a warm, sunny place. For peppers, warmth is the most important condition for yield. He needs it at all stages of development, starting with planting seeds. At an earth temperature from +25 to +30, the sprouts appear in a week, at +20 - after two, at +18 - after three weeks, at +14 - after a month. If the temperature is lower, seed growth stops.

At the moment when sprouts appeared from the seeds, it is recommended to lower the temperature of the earth to +16 degrees - this way, the root system of the pepper will be strengthened. After two leaves grow, raise it to +22, and after a pick - to +25.

Peppers also need light to grow. With sufficient light, the flower forms on a fork after 9 leaves. If there is little light, another leaf appears at this place. Thus, the time of harvesting is delayed, which is unacceptable in a short summer. In case of insufficient lighting of peppers in Siberia, you can place a fluorescent lamp 6 cm above the seedlings and turn it on for up to 15 hours a day.

Description of the seed planting process

The container in which the seeds will be planted must be treated with a manganese solution. Put drainage on the bottom, on top - a nutrient mixture for vegetable crops, then pour soil so that at least 4 cm remains to the top of the container.

Before planting seeds, the soil must be watered. If several seeds are planted in one container, they must be spread out on the surface of the earth at a distance of one centimeter from each other and three - between the rows. The same distance is required between the edges of the container and the seeds.

From above, the seeds are covered with the remaining earth. For easier sprouting of pepper, it is recommended to mix this soil with sand.

Do not forget to put up signs with the name of the crop, variety, and planting date Better not to make them out of paper.

To retain moisture and heat, the container must be covered with a transparent material and placed in a semi-dark warm place.

Crops need aeration every day, otherwise mold may appear.

As soon as sprouts appear, the covering material must be removed, and the container must be rearranged in a sunny place.

It is necessary to water the crops with warm water, while making sure that the liquid does not accumulate in the pan. The sprouts are drawn towards the light so that they do not tilt to one side, the container should be periodically turned over to the opposite side.

You need to start feeding the seedlings of peppers no earlier than when the first leaves appear, otherwise all the power of the pepper will go into the greens. You can feed it with liquid fertilizer for indoor plants (two teaspoons per 5 liters of water).

10 days before the seedlings are planted in the ground, you should start hardening the pepper: take it outside, where there is no draft, first for an hour, then gradually increase the time. Hardening is necessary for faster adaptation of the pepper when transplanted into the ground, as well as to reduce the risk of seedling diseases.

How to plant seeds in peat tablets

The tablets contribute to the correct growth of seedlings, because they contain all the components necessary for this. They are planted with pre-germinated seeds or dry, if there is confidence in the shoots.

The required number of tablets is placed in the container, filled with boiled (warm) water. The tablets swell from the liquid, increasing 5 times and taking the shape of a cylinder. Excess water must be drained.

In the upper part of the tablet, you need to make a depression one and a half centimeters and place the germinated seed in it, cover it with earth on top. Then you need to follow the same steps as when planting seeds in the soil mixture. The main difference is that when growing seeds in tablets, no additional feeding is required.

Watering should be done when the tablet begins to decrease in volume. Water is poured into the bottom of the container, adding as it is absorbed, and avoiding stagnation.

Transfer the peppers from the container to the pots when the roots have sprouted through the pill mesh. To do this, fill the pot with 4 cm of earth, place a tablet in the center, carefully distributing the roots over the surface of the earth. Then you need to continue to fill the pot with soil, slightly compacting it. At the end, the seedlings must be watered, starting from the edge of the pot.

Transfer to the ground

The site for planting peppers should be sunny and free of drafts, the soil should be neutral acidity, light and free of weeds.

When to plant peppers in the ground, the appearance of the first buds will tell. In this case, the ground temperature should be above +14. Seedlings are planted at a distance of half a meter between the bushes.

The transplant must be done by the transfer method, after making the holes of the same depth as the pepper grew in the container. It is advisable to add mineral fertilizer to the hole (a tablespoon is enough), which contains potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus.

Attention! There should be no chlorine in the fertilizer.

After the pepper is placed in the hole, the roots must be covered with 2/3 soil, watered well (at least three liters of room temperature water) and filled with earth to the end. Install the label. You can mulch the peppers with peat, straw, sawdust, or last year's compost. If necessary, the bush should be tied up.

Important! First, a peg for a garter is stuck into the ground, only then pepper is planted, otherwise there is a big risk of damaging the fragile roots.

Until the pepper is rooted, there is no need to water it. Then, if there is no heat, watering is done once a day only at the root. Watering the peppers should be sparing, it should not be allowed for moisture to stagnate in the soil.

The soil must be loosened 6 times per season. It is necessary to loosen the first time after the peppers are well rooted.

Advice! After the plant blooms, it needs to be huddled - this will increase the yield.

If you are planting different varieties of pepper, you need to do this at a considerable distance from each other to avoid cross-pollination.

Conclusion

Despite the fact that it is quite difficult to grow pepper in Siberia, it is quite possible with the right choice of the variety, the timing of planting the seeds and the observance of all growing instructions.


Watch the video: How to Germinate Pepper Seeds INCREDIBLY QUICK with 99% Germination! (December 2022).

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