House and garden

Champignons: varieties, benefits and harms of mushrooms


Description of champignons is well known. To distinguish edible mushrooms on your own, you need to know what types of champignons are.

What mushrooms like champignons look like

Adults, fully matured and ready to harvest fruit bodies, are represented by a massive, fairly dense, rounded or more flat hat with a white or brownish surface, smooth or covered with dark scales. The plates are free, white, but darker with age. Leg centrally located, flat and most often dense. May be hollow inside. There is a partial blanket, represented by a well-visible one- or two-layer ring. The pulp can have various shades of whitish color.

Where champignons grow

The name of this species combines classic saprotrophs, which grow mainly on compost or well-manicured soils, as well as on organic and forest rich humus soils.Mycelium and fruiting body can grow even on anthill or dead wood.

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Composition and beneficial properties of champignons

Mushrooms are classified as dietary and nonfat foods. 100 g of mushroom pulp contains approximately 26-27 kcal. Fresh mushrooms are less caloric. The composition is represented by 4.3 g of protein, 1.0 g of fat, 0.1 g of carbohydrates, 1.0 g of ash and 91 g of water. The use of such a product for the human body is undeniable that due to the presence in the composition of a significant amount of phosphorus, which allows you to:

  • normalize metabolic processes;
  • tone up the body;
  • relieve tiredness;
  • relieve irritability;
  • calm the nervous system;
  • reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke;
  • restore the functions of the stomach and intestines;
  • suppress appetite.

The product improves memory and concentration, has a positive effect on the state of the organs of vision, helps strengthen the connective tissues of the body, including bones, teeth, skin, hair and nails. Mushroom juice can have a bactericidal effect. Dry mushroom powder is useful in the treatment of hepatitis and gastric ulcer.

How to collect champignons

Harm and contraindications of mushrooms

Despite the significant amount of useful properties that mushroom pulp stores, the presence of some contraindications should be taken into account:

  • preschool children;
  • disturbances in the work of the organs of the stomach and intestines;
  • liver dysfunction;
  • individual intolerance.

With caution, you need to treat the use of mushroom dishes in the presence of a history of allergies of an unknown nature. It is also important to remember that the strong heat treatment of fruiting bodies makes them less nutritious and healthy.

Edible species and varieties of champignons

Some species grow exclusively in forests (A.silvatisus and A.silvicola), and soil saprotrophs (A.bisrorus, A.bitorquis, and A.subronatus) grow in open spaces, among grasses of different heights. Among other things, there are desert species, which include A. Bernardii and A. Tabularis.

Field champignon

A. arvensis has a fruiting body of a sufficiently large size, with a thick-fleshy, round-bell-shaped or convex-spread hat, in the center of which there is a small tubercle or slight flattening. The pulp is white or cream in color, with the scent of almonds or anise. An ocher hue and slow yellowing may be present. The surface part is silky or smooth, covered with yellowish or brownish scales. Plates are often located and characteristically swollen. The area of ​​the peduncle is cylindrical, smooth, with expansion or thickening at the base. The spores are black-brown.

Champignon forest

The fruit body of A. sylvatisus has an egg-shaped bell-shaped or flat-spread hat, often with a protruding tuber, rusty-brownish-brown color, with a large number of dark scales. The flesh of white staining, blushing on the cut. Blades of white, reddish or dark brown, narrowed at the end. The area of ​​the legs is cylindrical, slightly swollen at the base, with a whitish membranous ring.

Champignon

A. camstris has a hemispherical hat with a hat folded inward, flat-rounded or open. The central part is convex. The surface is white or brownishmay be dry, silky or small-scaled. The flesh of white staining, blushing on the cut. The plates are white, pinkish or dark brown in color, with a purple hue. The leg area is straight and even, with expansion or swelling at the base, with a wide whitish ring.

Small scale champignon

A. squamuliferus is distinguished by a thick-fleshy, at first semicircular, later convex-spread hat, with a wide and blunt tubercle. The surface of the fine-scaled type, silky. The leg area is cylindrical, sometimes with a slight tuberous base, white, silky-fibrous type. The flesh is white, pinkish or reddening at a break. Spore powder of dark brown color. Free-type plates, often located, brownish staining. Spores are ellipsoidal in shape, with a smooth surface, light brownish in color.

Champignon garden

A.bisrorus has a rounded hat, with curved edges and the presence of a residual private bedspread, represented by thin flakes, pure white or with a brownish tint. The surface of the cap is smooth, with a gloss in the central part or of a radially fibrous type, sometimes with scales. The pulp is dense and juicy, acquiring a pinkish or red tint on the cut. Plates of young specimens of pink staining. With age, the plates become dark brown with a characteristic purple hue. The leg is cylindrical, pinkish in color, with a pronounced ring.

Champignon dark red

A. haemorrhoididarius is characterized by a convex or conical hat with a blunt apical part. At the maturation stage, the hat opens almost to a fully flat shape. The peel on the surface is brownish-brown, cracking into separate fibrous-type flakes.

The pulp is white in color, in the section acquiring a thick red color. It has a not too pronounced mushroom or sour aroma, and also has a mild and pleasant taste. Leg of off-white staining, with a hollow interior and a scaly surface below the ring. At the base of the leg there is a noticeable thickening immersed in the ground. The membranous ring is well defined. Free-type plates, often located, are light pink in color.

Champignon Chunky

A. spissicaulis is similar to the previous species and has a hemispherical, quickly opening to almost flat, hat. The skin is whitish, with a smooth surface, which is prone to cracking and the formation of brownish-yellow flakes. The edges are turned down. The pulp is whitish in color, in the cap part is noticeably thick. A grayish red hue appears on the cut and a noticeable almond flavor is present. Club-shaped leg. The plates are freely and relatively rarely located, reddish or chocolate-blackish-brown.

Where to look for mushrooms in the forest

Poisonous and dangerous double champignons

There are several toxic varieties, as well as deadly and poisonous doubles, which in their appearance resemble edible species.

Yellow champignon

A. xanthermus is a fairly common in the wild, poisonous species. The external description is similar to the edible species A. arvensis. It is characterized by a bell-shaped, with slightly curved inward edges, fleshy, white or whitish-brown staining of the upper part. The pulp in the process of pressing becomes yellow. The surface is smooth and dry, prone to cracking. A significant difference is the presence of an unpleasant phenolic or ink smell. The leg is hollow, distinctly white, with a noticeable swelling at the base.

Champignon ploskoshlyapkovy

A. Placomyces is one of the most poisonous species. The hat is conical, then convex and wide-convex in shape with a fairly flat central part and tucked edges.

The surface is white, covered with scales of gray or grayish-brown. The central part has a very characteristic gray-brown color. Hat plates loosely located, white, pink and chocolate brown. The pulp is white, with intense yellowing on the cut and the presence of a sharp ink or phenolic odor. The leg is cylindrical in shape, with a club-shaped thickening at the base.

Californian champignon

A. californisus is a poisonous species characterized by a dry, whitish or brownish hat with a darker central part and a noticeable metallic tint. The surface may be bare or covered with numerous scales. The cap edges on young specimens are turned inward. The flesh does not change color or is slightly darker on the cutas well as an unpleasant phenolic odor. The leg area is most often curved and has a characteristic membranous ring.

How to distinguish false champignon

Pale grebe, smelly fly agaric, as well as spring or white fly agaric in their appearance, quite strongly resemble young edible champignons. Most often, inexperienced mushroom pickers confuse edible varieties with poisonous pale grebe, therefore It is very important to know the main differences:

  • has a fibrous surface and smooth edges;
  • surface coloring varies from whitish to pale, greenish-olive or grayish tint;
  • young specimens have a hemispherical hat, and more mature ones - open or flat;
  • plates are always white and soft enough;
  • at the base of the leg there is always a pronounced bulbous thickening or the so-called klebnevidnoy swelling;
  • the flesh on the cut does not change the color;
  • mushroom aroma is completely absent.

It is important to remember that false champignon or pale grebe belongs to the category of deadly, poisonous varieties, and the mortality rate when eating such fruiting bodies in food is 70% or more.

Mushroom cultivation in the garden

It is not too difficult to grow or plant edible mushrooms on your own in a garden plot, but before planting mushroom seeds or propagating fruiting bodies with mycelium, you need to familiarize yourself with the technology of home-grown mushroom growing. The main conditions for proper cultivation are presented:

  • comfortable temperature conditions ranging from 22 to 25ºС;
  • optimal moisture indicators in the range of 85-95%;
  • the presence of a gas environment and intensive ventilation with an influx of fresh air flows at different stages of growth and development;
  • the correct chemical characteristics of the substrate with a neutral or slightly alkaline environment at a pH of 7-7.5;
  • almost complete absence of direct lighting and the presence of shading. If necessary, landings must be covered or shaded.




How to distinguish champignon from pale toadstool

During the formation of the primary mass primordia of fruiting bodies, it is very important to gradually reduce the air temperature, over five days, to indicators of 14-16 ºС. The room allocated for cultivation is required regularly and is well ventilated. When the very first mushrooms appear, irrigation measures are carried out daily, but in a moderate mode. The average water consumption per square meter of landings should not exceed one and a half liters of water. Subject to cultivation technology, the harvest of fruiting bodies is formed in a wave-like mode for three or four months, with an interval of a week.

The collection is carried out at the stage of maximum dimensions of the above-ground part, in which the characteristic film cover under the head should be completely preserved. In winter, it is necessary to pour snow on the roof, which will create a favorable temperature for growing inside the greenhouse space.