Croton (Сroton) - a plant belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaseae). This genus includes a little over fifteen species. In vivo grows in the tropics and subtropics.
Homeland and botanical description of croton
Deciduous perennial with attractive appearance. It is characterized by the presence of a branched aerial part. At home, the height of the plant is often three meters. In conditions of indoor floriculture, the size does not exceed one and a half meters. It differs in dense, erect stems and many lateral processes with petiole leaves.
Foliage is diverse in shape. Leaves can be lanceolate, oval or three-fingered, with smooth or slightly wavy edges and the presence of a pronounced relief pattern along the veins. The leaf plates are dark green, with stains of yellow, white or pink color. At the flowering stage, from the leaf sinuses flowers are formed, collected in medium-sized panicle-shaped inflorescences.
Croton Care Features
Popular types and varieties of croton
The vegetable juice of the decorative culture is poisonous, so you need to work with the culture very carefully. In the conditions of indoor floriculture, only the most decorative and absolutely unpretentious varieties of decorative perennial are grown.
C. angustifolium - a popular variety of codiium variegatumcharacterized by long and rather narrow leaves of green staining, with strokes and specks of yellowish-golden staining.
C. ecchinosaurus is an American species, akin to the dragon croton, very popular among amateur gardeners. The plant is widely used in the manufacture of varnishes.
C.draco is an American tropical variety that is characterized by the release of a red-colored resin that hardens when exposed to air. Widely used in the manufacture of varnishes.
Croton varigatum (variegated)
C.variegatum - evergreen shrub plant a little more than one and a half meters high, with branched, bare shoots and elongated lanceolate, elliptically lanceolate foliage.
C.excellant is a variety easily recognizable by its very decorative foliage. The appearance of the leaves is similar to oak. Young foliage on the apical part of the plant has a yellowish-green color, and at the base - burgundy.
C. Retra - a variety with a branching stem, on which are quite large, leathery type of leaves. A leaf plate is characterized by a green background with pronounced yellow streaks, edges and dots.
Croton Mrs. Iston
C.Mrs. Iton is a variety that has broad leaves of a rounded shape. On the young foliage there is a characteristic pattern of cream staining. Over time, the color becomes more intense.
C.Zanzibar - a distinctive feature of the species is the formation of highly narrowed foliage with a fairly densified base. On a bright green leaf surface there are strips of yellow, orange and burgundy staining.
"Mix" is a slice of several varieties of the croton plantplanted in one flower pot, without specifying the variety.
Croton Gold Sun
C.Gold Sun - a variety popular among domestic amateur gardeners, possessing very characteristic large leaves oval in shape and light green in color with yellowish spots of different sizes.
Toxicity and beneficial properties of croton
Croton belongs to the category of poisonous plants. In the aerial part contains a fairly high percentage of toxic components, which, when exposed to the skin can provoke a pronounced burning sensation and severe inflammatory processes. The ingestion of poisonous vegetable juice into the digestive tract causes severe diarrhea and vomiting. For this reason, the plant is not recommended for cultivation in houses where there are small children or animals.
Despite its toxicity, perennial has a number of useful properties. It is able to have a positive effect on the emotional state and very well improves performance, so the cultivation of such an indoor flower is recommended to everyone who can’t organize themselves.
Croton care at home
Decorative perennial is difficult to attribute to the number of very common, due to some difficulties in growing and the need to provide the culture with proper care at all phases of growth and development.
How to propagate croton cuttings
Croton transplant after purchase
Immediately after the acquisition, it is recommended to give the plant a couple of weeks to adapt to new growing conditions, after which it must be transplanted without fail. This need to transplant the indoor flower after purchase is often due to the sale of plants in the transport soil. Transport land possesses an unsuitable composition for the full development of the plant. It is in the absence of transplantation that the leaves on the plant turn yellow first and then fall off en masse.
For transplantation, you need to cook a fairly wide, but not too high flower pot with drainage holes in the bottom. Brick drainage or expanded clay can be used as drainage. The transplantation process should be carried out by means of a transfer method, which would reduce the risk of destruction of the earth coma. The free space between the earthen lump and the walls of the flower pot must be filled with nutrient soil substrate, after which it is irrigated with warm and settled water.
Soil and planting pot for indoor plants
The active growth processes of the indoor flower directly depend on the state of the roots, so you need to approach the choice of planting capacity very carefully. A wide enough, but not very deep flower pot will be ideal. Also it is very important to rememberthat the flowerpot should be very stable, with high-quality drainage holes.
For cultivation, it is recommended to use loose and well-drained soil with a very high level of air permeability and average acidity levels of 6.1-6.5 rN. To prepare the planting substrate yourself, you need to mix one part of the turfy earth, a couple of parts of the leafy earth and one part of the sifted sand of the middle fraction.
Before embarking, the soil must be disinfected at high temperature or spilled with a solution based on potassium permanganate.
Humidity, lighting and temperature
The heat-loving room perennial feels very comfortable at room temperature levels of 20-25 ° C. An increase to 26 ° C or more or a decrease to 16 ° C or lower, as well as drafts, often become the main cause of disease. In the summer, the aboveground part must be protected from direct sunlight that causes burns. Great for growing east or west windows. In winter, it is best to install a flower pot with a plant on a sunny windowsill.
Insufficient lighting also negatively affects the decorativeness of the flower. In this case, the foliage quickly loses its bright color, and variegated forms get the usual green color of the foliage. The plant needs a sufficiently high air humidity of 70-80%. Periodically spray the plant and remove accumulated dust.
Spraying with warm and well-settled water with the addition of a small amount of growth stimulants represented by Zircon, Epin-extra, or Immunofitofit shows very high efficiency.
How often to water a flower
Tropical tropical perennial should be watered year-round, using soft and fairly settled water at room temperature for this purpose. All irrigation measures are required to be performed only as the top layer of the soil substrate in the flower pot dries.
It is extremely important to avoid stagnation of water not only at the root system, but also directly in the pallet, under the flower pot.
How long and under what conditions croton blooms
Kodiyeum - flowering ornamental plants. However, in conditions of indoor floriculture, such a perennial is highly valued and often grown far from flowers. During the rare flowering of croton from the leaf sinuses, a so-called flower-bearing arrow is formed with fairly small and completely plain-looking flowers of a whitish color or light yellow color.
Since such flowers do not have special beauty and decorative attractiveness, and the plant itself is capable of spending a significant part of its strength and nutritional components on flowering and the formation of seed material, experienced amateur flower growers consider it necessary to remove the flower arrow immediately after formation.
It is very important to trim a decorative perennial correctly and in a timely manner with a clean and sharp knife or scissors. It is very important to regularly remove all damaged and shriveled foliage. To form the crown, all extra shoots are removed, and the tops are nipped, which causes branching. Among other things, with proper care and regular feeding, the tropical culture blooms regularly.
But, need to remember that the resulting flowers have a characteristic white or yellow color, small size and nondescript appearance, therefore they do not represent any decorative value. Flowers and the formation of seed material takes a lot of strength and nutrition, greatly reducing the external attractiveness of the flower. For this reason, experts and experienced amateur growers recommend timely pruning of flower stalks.
Croton diseases and methods for their treatment
Kodiyeums are poisonous, so a rare pest risks settling on it. Nevertheless, sometimes there are lesions with spider mites, mealybugs and thrips, to combat which you should use both folk remedies and highly effective chemicals.
It is also very important to remember that dust accumulations can close pores on sheet plates, which greatly complicates the process of air exchange and photosynthesis, therefore it is very important to remove dust deposits in a timely manner with a soft cloth dampened in warm and settled water.
As a rule, all the problems associated with the cultivation of ornamental crops are provoked by errors in the care process.
Why is croton dropping leaves
Drying and falling of leaves can be a natural process, but massive loss of leaves is most often associated with the appearance of pests, severe overdrying of the soil substrate, rotting of the root system due to waterlogging, dry air, sharp temperature drop and drafts. If the perennial has dropped the foliage, then first of all you need to adjust the watering mode.
What to do if the tips of the leaves dry on the codium
The tips of the leaves often dry out when there is insufficient watering or the negative effects of too dry indoor air. Important to remember, that you can’t place a flower pot with a plant near heating appliances or in direct sunlight.
Reasons for the lack of flowering
The main reason for the lack of flowering can be violations in the temperature regime and the level of humidity in the growing room, and also are associated with improper irrigation measures and top dressing. It is competent and timely fertilizing that is of primary importance and allows you to stimulate the formation of a flower arrow. The first feeding is carried out in the early spring, when the plant leaves the dormant stage and is especially in need of nutritional components.
A plant responsive to fertilizing requires the introduction of complex fertilizers a couple of times a month. Feeding with special compounds intended for growing decorative leafy plants gives a very good result. Experienced flower growers use a standard 2% solution based on mineral fertilizers for top dressing.
Important to rememberthat burn injuries of the root system of ornamental culture can be avoided only if the houseplant is watered abundantly before dressing.
The magical properties of croton
It is important to note that croton is popular not only in our country. Such a perennial ornamental plant is also in high demand among foreign flower growers, due to the ability of such an indoor flower to protect the peace of the hearth and protect the house from negative energy.