The high-quality implementation of all the necessary measures for the care of the peach orchard guarantees an excellent harvest. The success of the cold months is also dependent on the work done.
General rules for peach care in the fall
Peach or nectarine belongs to the southern inhabitants, therefore it is difficult to tolerate cold winters. Autumn care work is practically no different from the care of other garden plants and includes several labor-intensive processes, such as spraying, pest control, healing of wounds, pruning, fertilizing. The main goal of the autumn work is to increase winter hardiness by mulching the trunk section and warming the tree.
Features and scheme for pruning peaches in the fall for beginners
The pruning procedure is a very important event in the care of fruit trees, as it is necessary both to extend their life span and to increase the yield.
Regular removal of excess branches helps to form the most lightened crown, which gives the following advantages:
- improved ventilation;
- easier harvesting;
- rejuvenation of the tree by removing damaged and dry branches;
- prolongation of productive life;
- stimulating the growth of young shoots and providing excellent yields;
- the tree takes on a neat appearance.
Using pruning in the autumn, the peach is prepared for winter. All necessary actions begin after harvesting, but no later than mid-autumn. Vegetation by this time is already over. Excision of basal growth protects against the appearance of harmful insects.
Several steps are included in the cropping scheme:
- It is necessary to cut the upper branch at the very base.
- Removal of the upper lateral shoots at the top, which grow from the upper branch, leaving a couple of buds on the lower shoots.
- On the branches emerging from the trunk, or on the skeletal, it is necessary to leave so many buds in order to create free space between them for the passage of light.
The number of branches is left depending on the level of fruiting. The higher the yield, the less need to leave branches. As a result, 80 to 200 branches should remain on the tree.
After pruning, it is very important to process the cut points with a garden varar. In addition, the tool must be well sharpened and disinfected. Branches are not recommended to saw off. It is better to cut them off in one motion.
Peach pruning features
How is peach fed in autumn?
Fertilizing the tree must be carried out on the near-trunk furrows. Fertilizers must be mineral (phosphorus-potassium complexes) and organic:
- young seedlings require top dressing with manure or compost (9-10 kg), superphosphate (70-80 g), potassium salt (25-30 g);
- for 3-6-year-old trees, you need to make manure (14-15 kg), ammonium nitrate (55-60 g), superphosphate (110-115 g), potassium salt (45 g);
- at 6-8 years old, the tree needs manure (28-30 kg), superphosphate (170-180 g), potassium salt (65-74 g);
- fertilizing adult specimens, one should take manure (25-35 kg), ammonium nitrate (115-135 g) and potassium salt (85-105 g).
Experienced gardeners recommend that follicular top dressing be performed in the fall with urea based.
Peach autumn watering regime
In order for moisture to remain in the soil, it is necessary to mulch the parietal section of land. In addition, this action contributes to the suppression of weeds and prevents the formation of soil crust.
Peaches are able to tolerate a hot climate, but subject to sufficient moisture, so trees need to be watered several times a year: in early spring before flowering, during the growth of shoots, before ripening.
Autumn water-charging irrigation, moisturizing soil, is needed for a good wintering of the tree. For 1 square meter of the trunk section, 5-6 buckets of water are required. In the case of groundwater, the volume of water is reduced. To provide land with air, it is necessary to drain the soil. Final irrigation procedures should be carried out no later than the first days of November.
Rules for preparing peach for winter
Gardeners are constantly busy taking care of fruit trees, which are the leaders of personal plots. During the year, many different actions are carried out aimed at obtaining a good harvest. Autumn works are equally important for the preservation of the fruit tree.
Digging and mulching trunks
The part of the earth, located near the trunk of a tree, equal in diameter to the crown, is called the trunk circle. The process of mulching this land is not only an ecological method of registration, but also performs a number of functions:
- decoration of the trunk circle;
- moisture retention;
- an obstacle to the growth of weeds;
- the introduction of additional nutrients for the root system.
Material for mulch can serve:
- fallen needles;
- crushed bark;
- cones, cedar husks or other natural ingredients.
The thickness of the mulch layer must be at least 5 cm. To prevent the plant from starting to rot, leave a distance from the trunk to the mulch. This will allow air to circulate.
In order for the garden culture to tolerate winter well, it is very important to make competent soil treatment. Deep digging of the earth (not more than 10 cm) allows you to destroy the pests located in it. In this case, you need to consider clods should not be broken. Digging the earth should be no closer than 0.5 m from the stem, otherwise you can damage the superficial root system.
How to cover a peach for the winter
Shelter of a young peach for the winter
A peach tree is very afraid of temperature changes, so in order to avoid the death of buds or a tree, proper preparation for winter is necessary. To preserve heat, the young tree needs to be covered.
- The first stage of work begins after leaf fall. It includes the bending of the seedling to the ground. The temperature must be above zero so that the branches do not become brittle.
- In order to spend less material on shelter, you should bend the tree as low as possible. The first step is to choose the side where it is better to persuade him. Then the pegs are driven in, to which the rope is attached. Small branches join together and become attached to the main branch. In this case, all actions must be careful so as not to break anything.
- Since old branches are difficult to deform, they can be cut. And damaged areas need to be lubricated with var.
- To protect against mice, which in winter can settle in a shelter and damage the bark of a tree, a special repellent should be placed in the center of the bush.
- After the snow falls, they need to sprinkle with a tree to get a snowdrift of up to 25 cm.
- Instead of snow, you can use dry material, such as sawdust or other bulk materials (straw, old tops). Place a plastic film or roofing material on top.
When covering a fruit tree, it is important not to use a very dense material under which the tree can dry.
Appointment and rules for spraying peach in the fall
To preserve the health of the tree and obtain large fruits, it must be protected from external enemies. Against diseases and parasites, spraying will help.
Autumn time is a great time for the propagation of fungi. Processing will help to destroy fungal spores, so that by the spring they do not spread over all branches. Then the fight against them will take much more time and effort.
To achieve maximum effect, it is necessary to adhere to the established rules:
- the first thing is to remove all the fallen leaves and cut off unnecessary branches;
- the day should be clear and calm, otherwise the rain will wash away all the chemicals;
- for spraying, it is advisable to choose the morning or evening hours;
- spraying should be fine and affect all parts of the plant.
Following all the recommendations, you can protect yourself from the additional costs of re-spraying
Peach protection against sunburn
From sharp surges in ambient temperature and adverse winter conditions, damage called sunburn can occur on the wood. All parts of a tree can get such wounds, and at any time of the year.
To prevent burns, in addition to shelter for the winter, it is necessary to properly water the tree and fertilize the soil. Before the onset of cold weather, the mushrooms and the base of the skeletal branches should be whitewashed with slaked lime. To improve the effect, the tree should be sprayed with milk of lime.
How to protect peach from rodents in winter
It is necessary to protect fruit trees not only from frost, but also from rodents, otherwise the peach will die. There are 2 ways to protect:
In the mechanical method, various materials are tied around the trunk of the tree and its branches (special nets for protection against rodents, roofing material, pine conifer). When using dense materials, to prevent condensation, they must be removed during the thaw.
Trees can be treated with special repellent compounds. For example, a mixture of clay and cow manure with the addition of carbolic acid at the rate of 1 tablespoon per bucket of the mixture. A good deterrent from hares is a mixture of fish oil with naphthalene in a ratio of 8: 1.
How to plant a peach in autumn
Autumn Peach Vaccine Technology
Vaccination is a combination of some parts of different trees in one. Some gardeners plant a varietal peach using quince, apricot, plum, or almond tree seedlings.
The technology includes the preparation of the desired grade of cuttings and further grafting on one or two year old seedlings.
Autumn vaccination is successful only with prolonged warm weather. Early frosts can ruin all results. Survival in the autumn is very weak, so it is recommended to carry out such work in the spring.
A peach tree can be grown in almost any area, but in order for it to take root, you need to carefully care for it. For landing, it is advisable to choose a site protected from cold winds.