Honeysuckle (Lonicera) got its name in honor of the medieval German botanist Adam Lonitzer. He himself wanted to call her a honeysuckle, because in those days, decorative species of honeysuckle or honeysuckle were common. In total, about two hundred lonisers or goat leaves are known. These are unpretentious, winter-hardy shrubs with delicate flowers and beautiful fruits, some of which are edible and extremely useful. There are also curly types of honeysuckle.
When and where to start preparing honeysuckle for winter
Honeysuckle is an unpretentious plant, many of its species withstand Siberian winters even without shelter. But in order to grow a rich crop of berries, so that the plant has a well-groomed appearance, it is necessary to monitor it.
Harvesting and dormancy in the shrub occur earlier than in most fruit trees. By the end of summer, the plant must begin to prepare for winter. This is pruning branches, harvesting weeds and dry branches, plant nutrition. Regarding the fallen foliage, the opinions of gardeners differ. Some believe that this is an additional protection against cold weather and it is not necessary to remove dry leaves. Others call for harvesting fallen leaves, in which garden pests hide for the winter.
Technology of autumn planting of honeysuckle
Autumn planting and replanting shrubs is preferable to spring. This is due to the fact that plants wake up early after wintering. If you transplant them at this time, then they probably will not have time with vegetation in the same season. But, taking into account the early "departure" of plants for wintering, autumn transplantation should be carried out earlier than most garden trees. When carrying out a transplant procedure the following specific requirements for honeysuckle must be provided:
- Choosing a site for its cultivation. Lonisera does not like dampness, it is a photophilous plant. It is optimal that its top is in the sun, and the lower part would be in partial shade.
- Honeysuckle prefers well-drained soil with a slightly acidic reaction. If the soil on the site is not of suitable composition, then peat, sand and turf should be added to it.
- To obtain a large crop of fruits, it is necessary to plant a bush in groups.
- The best time to land lonisers is September.
- For the plant, a pit measuring 45 by 45 cm is needed. A humus bucket, 200 grams of superphosphate and four times less potassium salt should be added to it.
- The roots are pre-soaked in fertilizers, and straightened before planting.
- After planting, the bushes are well watered, and then the trunk circle is mulched.
- Neighboring bushes should recede from each other by a meter and a half.
- The root neck must be left flush with the ground. After watering, it will gradually drop a couple of centimeters.
How to prune honeysuckle
Autumn Honeysuckle Care Tips
Autumn care for honeysuckle begins at the end of summer, this is a whole range of activities that must be completed before the cold. All of them contribute to the abundant flowering and fruiting of the bush in the next season. For this, care must be taken to introduce the necessary nutrients into the soil.
Autumn feeding of honeysuckle
For autumn top dressing, potash and phosphorus fertilizers are used. 30 grams of superphosphate and 20 grams of potassium salts need to be added per square meter of garden beds. But every three years you should also pamper the bushes with organic matter - humus or mature compost. This will create the prerequisite for the development of beneficial bacteria in the soil.
Nitrogen feeding can provoke the growth of shrubs on the eve of wintering and budding. This will lead to the death of plants.
The root zone needs to be fertilized using this technology:
- For newly planted shrubs around the circumference, dug holes a third of a meter deep, and for rooted shrubs, this depth doubles.
- Into the recesses pour four-times diluted mullein or ten-fold bird droppings, mineral fertilizers.
- Peat is used for mulching.
About watering honeysuckle in the fall
Honeysuckle refers to hygrophilous plants, even after harvesting it needs regular watering, although they do not become so frequent and plentiful.
In this case, it is impossible to loosen and dig the soil, because the roots of the honeysuckle are superficial and can be injured. But the mulching layer of sawdust or compost needs to be changed often, because it retains moisture well and prevents weeds from growing.
The scheme and rules for trimming honeysuckle in the fall
Honeysuckle well scrub, on the old branches many shoots are formed, and young shoots grow from the basal buds. To ensure that the branching process is not erratic, and the bush does not become sloppy at the same time, regular pruning is necessary.
The following rules should be observed during trimming:
- Plants need it only five years after planting, subject to all the subtleties of the process, they will need the next pruning only after a couple of years.
- Only old and dry shoots are subject to removal.
- At the end of pruning, at least five shoots must remain on the bush.
- Young branches should not be deleted, because it is on them that the kidneys are formed.
- First, the top of the skeletal branch is cut, a cut is made in the middle of the branch, and not near its base.
- The remaining branches are thinned out, removing small shoots that cause the crown to thicken, as well as growing inward and weakened branches.
- After that, the appearance of growths will be ensured already next year.
- A shrub that has reached the age of twenty is cut at a height of not more than 40 cm, i.e. on a stump.
Honeysuckle Spraying in Autumn
Lonisera is very resistant to pests and diseases, but for preventive purposes, every couple of years in early spring or autumn after leaf fall, each bush is sprayed with diluted urea. At the same time, 700 grams of granules are used per bucket of water.
Winter honeysuckle shelter
When hiding the lonisers before hibernation, you first need to figure out which species the honeysuckle belongs to. Frost-resistant varieties do not need winter shelter, because their flower and growth buds withstand even forty degrees below zero. In general, edible plant species possess these qualities. Even with flowering, they are able to withstand eight degrees of frost.. But still, it is not an unnecessary measure of protection for them to bind branches into bundles and bend them to the ground. This allows you to avoid breaking branches under heavy snow.
Decorative varieties are not so hardy. Curly creepers are especially in need of shelter. They remove the supports, bending the plants to the ground, then sprinkle them on top with spruce branches or sawdust. It is also good to cover the plants with rolled cover material. Additional protection from the cold provides snow cover.
In most cases, in winter, these plants need protection from pests. So, bullfinches peck their fruit buds, and mice and hares gnaw their bark. To prevent this from happening, they put a net on the bush for the winter.
How to plant honeysuckle
Time and technology of autumn honeysuckle vaccination
Autumn honeysuckle vaccinations are carried out after leaf fall, so that the scion has time to take root, but could not grow with the advent of new buds. The technology of this process is simple:
- Obliquely with a sharp tool, they cut the scion and stock.
- Tightly connect them and fix this place with tape.
- Top cover with a film and a sheet of paper.
- The last layer is wrapped with twine above and below.
- Vaccination is checked after three weeks.
How to propagate honeysuckle in autumn by cuttings
Honeysuckle is best propagated by cuttings. Effectively green cuttings, starting in the summer and continuing until the fall. In the early morning, apical shoots 15 cm long are harvested. They leave only a pair of upper leaves cut halfway. The remaining leaves are removed. An oblique section is made under the kidney to stimulate root formation. Connected in bundles, the cuttings are lowered into the root stimulator.
Then spend rooting shoots. The bottom of the greenhouse is covered with drainage from pebbles or gravel. A twenty-centimeter soil layer is placed on it, and a ten-centimeter substrate of equal parts of peat and sand is placed on top. This mixture is well watered.
Shoots are planted in rows, leaving 10 cm between them, and half as much between adjacent plants. They are placed vertically, deepening in half. Then they are watered and covered with a film. At first, they need frequent spraying (up to 10 times). To do this, use a spray gun. A couple of weeks after the formation of the roots, the number of waterings is reduced.
By the beginning of autumn, cuttings already have developed roots. For the winter, the cuttings remain in the same place. They are mulched with peat, covered with leaves and coniferous spruce branches with a layer of several centimeters. In the spring they are planted in open ground, and by autumn they become full-fledged trees that can be planted in a permanent place.
Another option for honeysuckle propagation by cuttings is the use of lignified shoots. Their harvesting is carried out after leaf fall, stored in the winter in the basement or dug up with earth.
Honeysuckle Care Features
Honeysuckle is a vitamin complex that includes sugars, organic acids, minerals, pectins and tannins. In folk medicine, it has long been used all parts of the plant as an antipyretic, vascular strengthening, diuretic, astringent, antiseptic. With appropriate plant care, you can not only collect a good harvest of delicious fruits, but also decorate the garden with an unpretentious and beautiful flowering shrub.