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You can melt beeswax in various ways, among which the most productive will be the use of a wax melter. However, with a small amount of ready-made and refined raw materials, you can melt it using home-made tools, especially since the low melting point of wax makes it easy to do this.
At what temperature does wax melt
At temperatures up to +35 oC, the wax material is solid, and when heated above this value, it becomes plastic.
The average melting point is in the range of +69 - 72 oC. This difference is due to the presence of various impurities in the composition, as well as the method of obtaining the initial wax raw material:
- from plates produced directly by bees: the melting point is +72 oC;
- melting or pressing - +62 - 65 oC;
- by extraction (in industry using organic solvents) - +69 - 71 oC.
When heating the wax raw material to +95 - 100 oC foam forms on its surface. This is due to the presence in the composition of water, which at +100 oC starts to boil, thereby forming foam. When heating, you must carefully monitor the process. Wax containing a lot of water can "run away" outside the crockery.
After complete evaporation of water in the wax composition, foaming stops. If the raw material is not contaminated with alkali, soap, then it does not contain emulsified water, and foam will not form.
At temperatures above +120 oC some of the components in the raw material begin to decompose and evaporate. Upon reaching the limit +250 - 300 oThe C wax decomposes completely and starts to burn.
Attention! Wax vapors are highly flammable and pose a fire hazard.
Natural beeswax has a higher melting point than synthetic beeswax. Synthetic (paraffin) melts from +45 to +60 oC.
How to melt beeswax at home
Home melting methods are convenient for small amounts of wax.
There are several simple ways to melt:
- in water;
- in a water bath;
- in a microwave oven;
- in a double boiler.
Each of the methods has both pros and cons.
How to melt wax in water
The raw material is crushed, placed in an aluminum dish and filled with clean water. It is advisable to use distilled, thawed or spring water: it is softer in its properties. When using hard water, the output product will be fine-grained and more brittle in structure. Then you should heat the wax over low heat for half an hour. After that, he is allowed to settle for another 10 minutes. The clean product will rise to the surface of the water when it cools.
Important! To melt wax covered with mold or decay, you must first soak it in a warm, below +40 oC, water, from 1 to 2 days. Throughout the process, the floating debris is removed.
How to melt wax in a water bath
The easiest and most convenient way to melt wax at home is with a steam bath. It is possible to melt raw materials in such an old-fashioned way in any kitchen, while at the output the finished product has practically no defects.
The crushed wax material is placed in a glass jar or other small diameter metal container. It is placed in a wider bowl of water and heated over a fire. The steam begins to melt the wax. When heating, make sure that the water does not completely evaporate, if necessary add boiling water.
For even kindling, the wax is constantly stirred. To completely melt the raw material, 10-15 minutes is enough, and after another 5-10 minutes keep it in a water bath. When using a bowl instead of a jar, it is important to ensure that no liquid gets inside: this can greatly degrade the quality of the product at the outlet.
Attention! With water, the wax material can form an emulsion (when small particles of liquid are evenly distributed between the pores).
When the mass becomes a homogeneous consistency, the fire is turned off and filtered - to get rid of possible debris.
The finished product is cooled gradually to obtain a homogeneous ingot. Fine debris is easily removed from the surface with a knife.
Important! The melted food is very hot at first, so care must be taken!
With this method, you can monitor all stages of melting and, if necessary, make adjustments. The disadvantage of this method is its low productivity. At the same time, the raw material should be free of impurities and mold.
How to heat wax without a wax melter in the microwave
At home, heating can be done in a microwave oven. To do this, place the crushed wax in a suitable container and put it in the microwave on the appropriate mode. You can melt wax at a microwave power of 650 W in 1 minute, at 850 W in 45 seconds, 1000 W in 40 seconds.
It should be remembered that you must use special dishes that are resistant to microwaves and high temperatures.
This method is convenient for melting a small amount of refined material. If there are impurities, it is better to use another method.
Important! The choice of the most suitable method depends on the purpose of use: for the subsequent use of a hot product in cosmetic procedures, a water bath is better suited, and a microwave oven will be enough for household needs.
How to melt wax in a double boiler
You can melt the wax using a double boiler. To do this, it is enough to pour water 2 - 3 cm into its lower part.In a double boiler, the wax raw material cannot heat up above +100 oC. This provides additional safety when melting.
How to dissolve beeswax
Wax raw materials have a complex composition and a very dense structure, which complicates the process of their interaction with various chemicals. So, it cannot be dissolved in water and glycerin.
Beeswax can only be dissolved by substances that do not combine with water. These include:
- hydrogen sulfide.
In addition, beeswax is easily mixed with various fats and oils, for better dissolution with which it should be preheated. For example, in liquid form, it dissolves well in paraffin and essential oils.
The melting point of the wax affects its properties. To obtain high-quality material at all stages of melting, it is recommended to follow certain technologies: maintain a constant temperature, clean the raw material before melting. When melting, it is important to remember that some metals can affect the color and structure of the finished product, therefore it is recommended to use aluminum, glass or enamel cookware.