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Any, even inexperienced mushroom picker knows that not every specimen encountered on the way should be put in their basket. However, few people are really able to determine by the appearance of the fungus its edibility. The article is devoted to the description of the most poisonous species in Russia and Ukraine.
List of names and a brief description of the most dangerous poisonous mushrooms in Russia
Not all poisonous species are deadly, however, they can have a very negative effect on the human body. Varieties, the use of which can lead to death, are relatively few - they need to be detected at a glance. Never touch them, much less put them on other mushrooms. Below are the top 5 most life-threatening mushrooms found in Russia.
It is without exaggeration the most poisonous mushroom in the world. Even a small part of it contains enough toxic substances to kill an adult. The danger of the toadstool is not only that the poison does not neutralize after any type of processing (drying, cooking, frying, freezing), but also in similarity with the harmless green or yellow russula and mushrooms. If you notice a pale toadstool in the forest, do not approach and do not touch it. The mushroom grows in cool and dark places.
Characteristic external features: a flat-shaped bell-shaped hat without spots and scales of white, pale green, yellow-green or olive shade. In the middle, the color of the hat is darker - usually olive brown. The diameter of the cap is 11 cm, the length of the leg is 15 cm, the thickness of the leg is 2 cm. The leg narrows to an extra-white or greenish color - a film ring can be seen on it. The base of the toadstool has a saccular vagina, popularly called the "cup of death." It grows singly or in groups and, fortunately, is quite rare.
White fly agaric
Another name is spring fly agaric. The fungus looks quite impressive thanks to the snow-white of the entire fruiting body, which does not lose with age. Mushroom pickers often confuse this poisonous specimen with champignons and a white mushroom-umbrella. However, it is worth taking a closer look: the mushroom's leg is surrounded by a Volvo, its hat eventually acquires a flattened conical shape, characteristic of the same grebe, with a tubercle in the middle. The leg is hollow, closer to the bottom covered with scales, the mushroom smells unpleasant.
If you eat the fruiting body itself - a fatal outcome is possible, if the fly agaric is in the basket of other mushrooms, and they were eaten - most likely the case will end in moderate poisoning. With tactile contact, immediately rinse off toxic substances with water.
In coniferous and mixed forests, there is a poisonous whitish talker. This is a small mushroom up to 7 cm high with a white hat resembling a saucer, and thin frequent plates on its inner side. The danger of this species is that it can be confused with russula, thunderfish, or edible species of talkers. You can meet this "enemy of mushroom pickers" in the fields and meadows.
False honey mushrooms
There are many inedible varieties of false mushrooms.: brick red, sulfur yellow, Candol mushrooms, poppy seeds. The most dangerous is sulfur-yellow false honey. Its use will certainly entail nausea and vomiting, sweating, bloating, diarrhea, impaired vision and even loss of consciousness. With a strong degree of poisoning, a fatal outcome is not excluded. The toxic substances of this honey agaric are so corrosive that just one mushroom can ruin the whole pot of good, edible mushrooms.
How to distinguish a false mushroom from the present? First of all, you should pay attention to the ring on the stalk characteristic of honey agarics: onedo edible mushrooms are so pronounced or absent altogether. Also, false mushrooms smell much worse, and their hats have a brighter color.
Previously, this species was considered conventionally edible, but recently it has been classified as a poisonous species. It's all about lectins that do not break down during heat treatment and cause a strong allergic reaction. Especially pigs are contraindicated in people with kidney failure. Fatal symptoms include respiratory failure, exacerbation of kidney disease, and intravascular coagulation.
The pig looks unremarkable: a brown hat with a diameter of about 14-15 cm with lowered edges is planted on a short solid leg with a matte surface. At the place of cut, the mushroom darkens.
The most poisonous mushrooms for humans
Types of poisonous mushrooms near Moscow and the Leningrad region
The two largest Russian megalopolises - Moscow and St. Petersburg - are the birthplace of many forest lovers. What you need to know to safely pick mushrooms in these areas? Firstly, you should drive away from the cities to a safe distance of approximately 35-40 km. Secondly, you need to know what poisonous varieties of mushrooms can be seen in these parts of Russia.
The mushroom, which occupies a leading position in the list of the deadliest mushrooms on the planet, did not pass by the suburbs.
It is considered more likely inedible than poisonous. The popular name is orange talker. It differs from real chanterelles by the even edge of a bright hat and the release of milky juice at the place of the cut.
This terrifying species is quite dangerous. and may be mistakenly put in the basket instead of white or oak. Characteristic features: a large, fleshy leg, covered with a red openwork mesh, and a pillow-shaped white thick hat.
Red fly agaric
This bright representative of forest flora can be found in mixed, coniferous and birch groves from July to the end of October in the Leningrad Region. Fortunately, the fly agaric, familiar to everyone from children's fairy tales, is quite easy to distinguish from edible species by a red hat with white scales and a snow-white leg with a characteristic "skirt".
How to distinguish edible from poisonous mushrooms
The list and characteristics of poisonous mushrooms of the Volgograd region
In addition to the pale toadstool described above, the satanic mushroom, false honey mushrooms and the slender pig in the Volgograd region, one can encounter several more dangerous varieties.
It lives in coniferous and deciduous forests. The popular name of this poisonous family of mushrooms is govorushki. External signs: a flat hat covered with gray scales, a powdery coating on the leg. The leg itself reaches a height of 8 cm, brown to the bottom. The danger of poisoning is that it is confused with champignon. After a couple of hours from the moment of eating, vomiting and severe intestinal upset begin.
Like a poisonous row, the white row is also not suitable for food, as it causes poisoning. Hat of a white row, open, convex. Leg - fleshy and dense, light color, with expansion closer to the base. The fruiting body itself has a pungent, unpleasant odor and taste.
Unfortunately, this variety is well camouflaged, and only an unpleasant smell and yellowing at the cut site can help distinguish an impostor from a real champignon. In this case, the way out of the situation will be the motto of mushroom pickers: "if you’re not sure about the mushroom, don’t take it to the basket."
Poisonous mushrooms of Siberia
The Siberian part of Russia is the most extensive, on its territory most of the country's forests are located. Along with healthy taiga gifts, you can find dangerous plants and mushrooms. In addition to the already mentioned varieties in Siberia grow:
The mushroom looks quite recognizable: a rounded brown hat with a dark tubercle in the middle and uneven edges set on a thin high leg. Deadly due to the presence of muscarin in the poison.
It is found only in the southern regions of Siberia. Refers to wood mushrooms and is sometimes mistaken for wood or winter mushrooms. The gallery looks like this: an almost flat brown or tan sticky hat on a hollow leg with a ring and a touch. On the part of the leg under the ring, one can notice flakes that distinguish the gallery from the wood scum.
Poisonous mushrooms of Ukraine
As in Russia, in Ukraine mushroom poisoning often occurs due to the ignorance of the population about poisonous varieties. In addition to the widespread pale toadstools, fly agarics, row mushrooms, satanic mushroom and sows, in Ukraine you can see:
Starting in April, groups of very dangerous mushrooms begin to grow in aspen and birch groves. Entoloma spring has well-recognized external features, such as a cone-shaped dark brown hat, the same brown thin leg and gray-brown medium-frequency plates on the inside of the hat. It smells of dampness and generally looks unattractive, which can save an inexperienced mushroom picker from big trouble.
The cone-shaped hat is streaked with stripes from the center to the edges, the leg is brownish-white. The fruit body emits easily inhaled spores that are poisonous in the same way as the pulp of the fruit body. The fiberglass contains muscarin and is 20 times more dangerous than red mushroom. Even a tiny piece in its raw form will cause repeated bouts of vomiting due to a burning taste.
A characteristic feature of the poisonous "brother" of a loaf is a purple hue in a round, slightly wavy hat. In a mature mushroom, the leg is hollow; at the cut, the flesh becomes reddish and spreads the smell of coconut or camphor. Danger to human health and life.
One should take a responsible approach to such an activity as “silent hunting” - inattention threatens the collector with severe poisoning or even death. If you are not sure that the torn gifts of nature can be eaten, consult with experienced mushroom pickers, and it is better not to approach suspicious specimens at all.