Pale grebe (Amanita phalloides) belongs to the kingdom of the Mushrooms and the family Amanita. There is a mortal danger beneath an unprepossessing appearance: it contains toxic substances that can lead to death of a person if it enters the body.
What does it look like and where does the pale grebe grow
This is a cap and agaric, the fruit body of which first has the shape of an egg, covered with a special film, and then becomes flat. The diameter of the hat is from 5 to 15 cm. It is covered with light skin of white, green, olive or gray. Variability is characteristic of pale grebe: Over time, the color of the hat becomes darker, and the flesh acquires a subtle unpleasant odor. The surface of the cap is fibrous, with a smooth edge; sometimes pieces of film remain on it.
The height of the white leg is 8-16 cm, and the diameter is 1-2.5 cm; often it is covered with a mesh pattern. In its upper third, young toadstools have a fringed ring, which later disappears. From below, the leg becomes thicker and passes into the Volvo - the ovoid membrane with a width of 3 to 5 cm.
The area of growth of pale grebe is the temperate zone of Asia, Europe and North America. The fungus is most often found in deciduous forests, less often - in coniferous. This toadstool loves the neighborhood of birch, linden and oak.
Features of the pale toadstool
Types of edible mushrooms, similar to a pale grebe
The insidious similarity of the white toadstool with edible mushrooms can turn into deplorable consequences. To avoid poisoning, hospitalization and the danger of death, you need to know what outwardly similar "doubles" have the poisonous Amanita phalloides.
This short mushroom, belonging to the rows, has a distinctive feature: a pronounced green tint of the skin of the cap and pulp, as well as lemon or greenish plates. Volvo and the ring, which are inherent in pale toadstools, are absent. But the greenfinch itself, although officially called conditionally edible fungus, has recently been suspected of being poisonous. Therefore, biologists strongly recommend that you refrain from using it in large quantities and without careful processing.
Biologists attribute the floats to conditionally edible species. They belong to the genus Amanita and have a corresponding appearance: a brown, flat or semi-egg-shaped hat, which makes them look like a pale grebe. But floats are much smaller than their deadly relativeand their flesh is thinner. They also lack a ring characteristic of a toadstool; radial grooves-cracks are noticeable at the very edge of the hat.
Russula: green and greenish
These edible russula species are common throughout Europe: they can be found in almost every deciduous or mixed forest. But the eyes of an inexperienced mushroom picker often confuse them with grebes. But upon closer examination, it becomes clear: they do not have a Volvo and a ring, and the flesh literally breaks in the hands, which is characteristic of all russula.
You can confuse pale grebe with champignon, which has a similar structure and color. But in order to notice the difference, you need to "ripen to the root": a dangerous mushroom has a Volvo near the ground. Champignons have none. Besides their plates eventually become dirty gray.
The use of pale toadstool in medicine
Although the use of a pale toadstool inside can lead to the death of a person, this plant with caution, but still used in medical research and medical purposes:
- The substances that make up the fungus, in a minimum concentration, are used by homeopathic doctors (alternative medicine).
- There is information about the development of methods of treating people who have poisoned with a pale toadstool, based on a special protein isolated from it. According to the scientists, he will be able to neutralize the effects of toxic toxins.
- Studies by scientists from Germany have proved that amanitin, contained in a poisonous fungus, destructively affects not only the human body, but also on malignant tumors of some organs of the digestive tract and mammary gland. Successful tests were performed on laboratory mice.
Perhaps scientists have yet to make discoveries about the beneficial properties of the fungus, but so far it has not been used in official medicine.
How to distinguish mushroom champignon from a pale toadstool
Description of signs of pale grebe poisoning
When the fungal particles enter the digestive tract, intoxication of the body begins. The main blow is taken by the liver and kidneys: their cells are destroyed by the poison, which leads to the failure of these organs. If you do not take urgent measures and do not send a person to intensive care, a tragic outcome may be inevitable.
The first signs of pale grebe poisoning make themselves felt within 12 hours:
- abdominal pain;
- persistent nausea and vomiting;
- diarrhea with blood;
- visual impairment;
- coordination problems, loss of strength up to loss of consciousness.
If at least one of these symptoms appears after eating mushrooms, you need to call an ambulance: procrastination can cost your life.
Before receiving medical care, you can take the first measures:
- Rinse the stomach with warm and boiled water, provoking vomiting after drinking 5 to 6 glasses. Repeat several times.
- Give the victim a laxative.
- Make an enema to flush the intestines from toxic food debris.
- Put the patient to bed and make sure that he does not eat anything.
It is noteworthy that after poisoning with a toadstool 4-5 days after the onset of the disease, the so-called "false recovery" occurs: the patient feels much better within 1-3 days. Then his condition again sharply worsens.
How to distinguish edible mushrooms from toadstools
To recognize a dangerous mushroom in time, You need to know some of its features:
- The fruit body of young toadstools is covered with a kind of blanket film, torn remains of which can be present on hats in the form of bulges in adult specimens.
- Plates of poisonous grebe are snow-white, while in most edible mushrooms they acquire a pinkish, beige and a different shade. A warning should be the fact that the plates are suspiciously wide and not connected to the leg.
- The thin leg is rounded and thickens to the bottom. It has a white color, but sometimes it has pale green stains or a moire pattern (similar to 2 grids superimposed on each other).
- Just below the hat is a white fringed ring. Champignons have a similar trait, which explains the confusion. Knowing that a pale toadstool has a ring will help distinguish it from russula or rowaning.
- Volvo - the name of a special ovoid membrane around the base of the grebe, partially hidden in the ground. All edible mushrooms have no such part.
- If you break the pulp, then it will not change color. In addition, the toadstool does not have a smell or it is very weak, with sweet notes.
- On the fungus, which contains toxic substances, there are no parasites: worms and insects.
If there are doubts about the edibility of the fungus, then the most reasonable option would be to leave it in place. It is strictly forbidden to find out what a mysterious find tastes: toxins will harm health, even if they simply get on the mucous membrane.
How to get rid of a pale toadstool on a garden plot
Pale grebe is not against the neighborhood with a person: it can often be seen in the garden in shady places, and even in a street garage or other outbuilding with an earthen floor. Fighting her in 3 ways:
- Mechanical removal of mushrooms with roots.
- Deep digging of the earth under the place of their growth.
- The use of chemicals that inhibit the growth of fungi. It can be Bordeaux liquid, solutions of vinegar and dishwashing liquid, salt, copper sulfate or phytosporin. But it should be noted that they do not solve the problem once and for all: it is likely that the grebes will return to their favorite place.
As a preventive measure, you need to make some changes to the territory:
- remove from the site all rotten wood, including rotten stumps;
- lower soil moisture;
- mow tall grass creating shading;
- constantly loosen the soil in the beds.
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The combination of all these methods will help to achieve success in the fight against poisonous grebe.
According to mushroom pickers, it is better to return from the forest with an empty basket than to go to the hospital. Therefore, you need to be attentive to every find. This will protect you from serious health problems.