To process strawberry leaves, if holes appear, you need to use chemicals (fungicides, insecticides). And first you need to establish the cause: the problem can be associated with both diseases and the action of insects. If the disease is not started, it is permissible to use folk remedies.
Why are strawberry leaves in holes
The reasons for this phenomenon are always associated with the development of diseases or the appearance of pests. In some cases, only holes with even or uneven edges may appear on the foliage. In others, spots form first, after which the tissues die off, so holes appear.
Most often, such phenomena are observed when such diseases and pests appear:
- different types of spots (white, brown, black, brown);
- leaf beetle;
- leaf roll;
- nettle weevil;
- raspberry-strawberry weevil.
Attention! In some cases, the strawberry leaves are in holes and curl. This indicates the appearance of various pests and diseases.
For example, curling is often associated with spider mites and strawberry mites. And if holes appear, these are fungal diseases. But it can also be caused by other pests (weevil).
What diseases are the leaves of strawberries in the holes and what to do
If holes appear on the foliage, it is most often associated with certain diseases. They are infectious in nature, so they quickly spread from one plant to another. The most common pathologies are spots (black, white, brown, brown).
Anthracnose (black spot)
Anthracnose is a dangerous disease that does not give any symptoms for a long time. Although during this period, the mycelium of the fungus already affects all parts of the strawberry. The main signs of damage are dark spots that resemble burns. As a result, the tissue dies off and literally crumbles. If holes appear, this indicates an advanced stage of the development of the infection.
Anthracnose causes staining and drying of strawberry leaves
Spores are carried by the wind to neighboring landings. They develop especially actively in conditions of excessive moisture. Therefore, non-compliance with the watering rate can provoke anthracnose and other diseases, manifested by holes.
Using folk remedies is ineffective. If the first signs appear, it is recommended to immediately treat with fungicides (preferably before the start of fruiting):
- Ridomil Gold;
- Previkur Energy;
- "Acrobat MC".
Ramulariasis (white spot)
If whitish spots with a brown border are visible on the leaves, this is a sign of white spot.
Gradually, the points begin to dry out, after which holes form in their place. The main measure of treatment is drug treatment. Bordeaux liquid, "Bayleton", "Kuproksat", "Euparen" are suitable for this purpose.
A week later, a second spraying is carried out. If spots or holes appear again, the strawberry bushes are re-processed. During fruiting, it is better to use biological pesticides - Fitoverm, Vertimek and others.
If the strawberry leaves are in holes and brown spots, it means that the bushes are affected by brown spots. At first, the spots are painted in a dark purple color, and they appear not only on the foliage, but also on the stems and fruits. Over time, the spots become red or brown in color. The affected areas begin to dry out, and holes form in their place.
If such signs appear, it is necessary to carry out a total treatment with fungicides:
- Ridomil Gold;
- bordeaux liquid.
During spraying, make sure that the solution also gets on the underside of the leaf plates. After that, the garden bed should be weeded out and cleaned, as well as top dressing with superphosphate (40 g per 1 m2) and potassium salt (20 g per 1 m2). But it often happens that these measures do not help. Then the bushes will have to be completely destroyed so that they do not infect neighboring plants. After that, the soil must be watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Holes in strawberry leaves can be caused by brown spotting.
Dendrofomosis - this pathology is also called brown spot
In appearance, the disease resembles a brown pathology. But if spots of angular shapes and holes appear, this is precisely dendropomosis. Most often, symptoms develop in the second half of summer, especially against the backdrop of heavy rains. Treatment measures are exactly the same as in the case of brown spot.
What pests cause strawberry leaves in holes and how to deal with them
If holes appear on the leaves of the strawberry, this may also be due to insects; in this case, you can help the plant with folk remedies and insecticides. The preparations should be used according to the instructions, observing the dosage, the frequency of processing and the waiting period (the minimum period of time after which it will be possible to harvest the crop).
Strawberry leaf beetle
A dangerous pest, it is a small brown beetle (body length is only 4–5 mm). He chews on strawberry leaves, which will cause all the bushes to be in holes. If nothing is done, then over time the pest will destroy the foliage completely. The insect is very prolific - the female lays up to 200 eggs per month on the back of the leaf plate. And after two weeks, new larvae are formed, which again make holes.
If holes appear on the leaves of strawberries, this may indicate an invasion of the strawberry leaf beetle.
Beetles can be seen with the naked eye. At the first stage, they are recommended to be removed by hand or washed off with water, although this is ineffective. It is better to use folk remedies - an infusion of garlic (cloves, herbs), dandelion or wormwood. The cooking instructions are as follows:
- Mow 200-300 g of grass (you can use one or a mixture of different ones).
- Place in a bucket of warm (not hot) water.
- Insist 4-6 hours under the lid.
- Add 40-50 g of laundry soap (you can use liquid soap).
- Spray abundantly on strawberry leaves where holes have appeared, and the rest (for prevention).
You can also cope with the strawberry leaf beetle with the help of mustard powder - 200 g per 10 liters, infusion of wood ash (200-300 g per 10 liters) with laundry soap. If the invasion is too large, you need to use insecticides:
- "Decis" and others.
These are chemical preparations that totally destroy both the strawberry leaf beetle and other pests. Although it is preferable to use biological insecticides during the fruiting period:
They are distinguished by a gentle effect, so you don't have to worry about the safety of the crop. But it is better to start harvesting at least 3-5 days after the last treatment. This period is called the waiting period. It differs depending on the characteristics of the drug (the specific value can always be found in the instructions).
Attention! If holes appear on the leaves of strawberries, processing is carried out in the early morning or late evening. But if the weather is cloudy, it is permissible to spray the bushes during the day.
The presence of a weevil can be determined visually, although its body is small - only 2-3 mm in length. It is painted black, so it stands out on the surface of the sheet with a contrast. The weevil eats not only foliage, but also buds and flowers, which leads to a decrease in yield. Its females hibernate in young fallen leaves, so it must always be removed from the site in early autumn.
In spring, weevils begin to multiply, and as a result, each female damages 40-50 buds. Pests feed on leaf tissue. If holes appeared on them en masse, it means that there are a lot of insects.
Attention! The main sign of the appearance of weevils is the smooth edges of the holes.
One of the reasons why holes can appear on the leaves of strawberries is the strawberry weevil.
Important! The earliest sign of pest infestation is deformation of peduncles and blackening of tissues.
You need to start the fight already at this stage. When holes appeared on the leaves, it means that there were even more insects.
The standard control measure is treatment with a solution of "Karbofos" concentration of 3%. If there are a lot of pests, such means are used:
- Fufanon Neva;
These are powerful chemicals that are best applied before fruiting. If fruits have already appeared on the bushes, use other means:
- infusion of garlic cloves and herbs;
- tobacco dust (all strawberry leaves are powdered).
If insects are on the leaves in autumn or spring, they can be shaken off onto a film, and then the bushes can be treated.
The nettle weevil is a large beetle with a body length of 10–12 mm. It is painted in a rich green with a touch of turquoise. The insect feeds on young leaves, nibbling them along the edges. The weevil does not disdain roots. Buds also suffer - during flowering, they begin to fall off, which leads to loss of yield. A beetle can appear not only on strawberries, but also on raspberries, and also on nettles.
Nettle weevil often causes holes in strawberry leaves
To destroy the pest, it is better to carry out the treatment even at the stage of bud formation. Secondary spraying can be scheduled for the second half of the summer, i.e. after harvest. Moreover, it is better to act at the moment when the first signs appeared - the damaged edges of the foliage. Effective remedies against weevil:
Spraying is carried out in cloudy weather, and after a week you need to repeat the treatment.
Important! If nettle-leaf weevils appeared, but control measures were ineffective, then in the fall the pests will lay eggs in the surface layer of the soil.
Therefore, experts recommend changing the place of planting strawberries every 3-4 years.
The strawberry leafworm is a small butterfly (wingspan up to 1.5 cm) of light brown color. If holes appear on the strawberry leaves, this indicates an invasion of a caterpillar (the butterflies themselves do no harm).
Most often, leaf rollers are found in the southern regions.
Young caterpillars of light green color eat foliage. But if holes appear, this indicates that the caterpillars have already grown, since the main damage is done by adult insects (their body is colored brown). As a result, the leaf plates are rolled up and covered with a layer of sticky web.
The main preventive measure is the removal and burning of old leaves in early autumn. If pests and leaky leaves appear on strawberries, you need to process it with the following chemicals:
- "Fufanon" and others.
Attention! Along with this pest, other types of leaf rollers feed on foliage tissues.
The most dangerous for bushes are currant and winter moth
Insects damage leaf plates, buds and flowers. As a result, holes appear on them.
It is almost impossible to avoid pests and diseases. Although it is quite possible to prevent them and reduce crop losses. There are several proven prevention tools for this:
- Purchase strawberry varieties that are resistant to major diseases. Hybrids are distinguished by special endurance. In addition, they tolerate frost and temperature changes well.
- Always pick leaves by hand in early fall, remove them from the site and burn them. But this should be done at the moment when they have already turned yellow and wilted, so that the foliage has time to give nutrients to the stem and roots of the plant.
- In the spring in April (before the beginning of the formation of buds), one should carry out a single treatment against pests - Bordeaux liquid and insecticide (for example, Actellic, Inta-Vir, Metaldehyde).
- Another factor that can trigger the development of anthracnose and other fungal infections is over-watering. Strawberries are given water twice a week, but you need to follow the weather forecast, and also focus on the characteristics of a particular variety.
- Plants should be watered only with warm, settled water. Cold liquid provokes the development of white spot.
- If, nevertheless, small holes appeared on the strawberry leaves, here is what you need to do first: carefully examine the bushes and determine the cause. Then carry out a total processing, and not only the affected, but also healthy plants.
In mid-spring, strawberries should be sprayed with fungicides and insecticides.
To process strawberry leaves, if holes appear, you can use folk remedies and chemicals. But if the defeat is massive, some of the bushes will have to be destroyed. To prevent this from happening, it is recommended to carry out spring treatments and observe other preventive measures.
Reviews on what to do if strawberry leaves are in holes
Irina Pavlova, 56 years old, Novosibirsk
In the summer we got small holes on the leaves of strawberries, which had never happened before. The season is not rainy, leaving is as usual. It turned out that these are strawberry leaf beetles. There were already a lot of holes, so they immediately treated them with Karbofos. It helped, I just don't want to use chemistry sometimes. For myself, I decided that it is better to process the bushes in the spring for prevention.
Antonina Smirnova, 49 years old, Nizhny Novgorod
We had holes in the strawberries even before flowering. And immediately the leaves were covered with dark spots. The spring was rainy, so they thought that by external signs it was a brown spot. We have processed "Hom", which is always at hand. You can take other preparations with copper. So far, everything is in order - nothing like this has happened again.