Black cohosh racemose, which is sometimes also called branched tsimitsifuga, is not only an ornament of penumbra flower gardens, but also has healing properties. For high brushes of snow-white flowers in Germany it is called romantically - silver candles.
Botanical description of black cohosh racemose (tsimitsifugi)
This plant has two Latin names at once: Actaea racemosa and Cimicifuga racemosa. Such dualism appeared due to the fact that black cohosh was immediately described by two botanists - the Swede Carl Linnaeus and the Englishman Thomas Nuttall, each of them gave him his own name. But the fact that this plant has brushes was noted by both scientists, therefore the Latin racemosa is present in both names.
Currently, the taxonomy name given to him by Linnaeus is used in taxonomy. Black cohosh belongs to the ranunculaceae family, the genus Voronets.
Black cohosh - a perennial plant, in favorable conditions, can grow up to 2 m. It has such a height due to a bare stem having a square section. The main decoration of the plant is a serpentine slightly curved brush, 50 cm long, which appears with the beginning of summer. The brush carries a lot of white flowers with very short oblong petals that quickly fall off. Cream stamens, the amount of which in each flower is large and can reach 110, last much longer and have a length of about 1 cm. Due to them, the entire brush seems fluffy.
During flowering, the plant is very decorative. The impression is somewhat spoiled by a strong sweetish, but unpleasant smell, especially attracting flies and bees, which pollinate it. The peculiar aroma gave the tsimitsifuge another name - the black cohosh smelly.
Leaves at the base of the acteracemosis of complex structure, multi-dissected green, shiny, large, sometimes up to a meter in length. They grow from a large fleshy rhizome. On the stem, leaves of a smaller size and simpler form are arranged next. There is only one complex large leaf on the plant, but the number of others can reach up to 70.
Black cohosh fruits are leaflets, seeds are rather large, their number in one leaflet is up to 10. Leaflets are kept on the plant throughout the winter. A breath of wind makes them thunder, which is why in England the tsimitsifuga was called the explosive weed.
Varieties of black cohosh
Places of growth and features of the preparation of tsimitsifuga
Black cohosh is an adornment of flower beds, but is not found in the wild in Russia. Other species of this genus grow both in Europe and in Asia. His homeland is North America. There it grows in deciduous forests under a canopy of trees. The natural habitat is the states of Alabama, Wisconsin, Arkansas and Georgia. Favorite places of growth are the slopes of ravines, the banks of streams, rich in humus and with a sufficient moisture content. An important condition is the presence of a partial shadow from higher plants growing nearby.
The spiky Voronets came to the European continent at the beginning of the 18th century and quickly became an ornament of flower gardens due to its decorativeness. In 1993, the Royal Horticultural Society, based in London, awarded him the Award of Garden Merit as an outstanding garden plant. But beauty is not his only virtue. No less important are its medicinal properties.
Branched multi-headed rhizomes of black cohosh possess the most pronounced medicinal properties. Their harvesting begins after the fruit ripens, that is, not earlier than the end of August. The excavated rhizome should be shaken off the ground, washed thoroughly and chopped. Drying is carried out at a temperature of about 60 degrees. Suitable for drying oven or dryer. Keep the roots in low humidity. Dried rhizomes have an unpleasant odor, their taste is bitter. You can store raw materials for 2 years.
For medicinal purposes, cimicifuga juice, squeezed from leaves and stems, is sometimes used, but its effect is much weaker.
Active substances tsimitsifugi
Black cohosh grass contains ascorbic acid, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins. The chemical composition of rhizomes is much richer. In them you can find:
- triterpene glycosides;
- phenolic compounds;
- organic and aromatic acids, including salicylic;
- tsimitsifugin, which consists of a mixture of bitterness and resins;
- trace elements;
- essential oil.
But the most interesting find is phytosterone and phytoestrogens. Such a rich composition determines the healing properties of tsimitsifugi.
Features of growing black cohosh
Useful and medicinal properties of the rhizome of tsimitsifuga
- For the treatment of rhizomes of black cohosh, the indigenous people of America, the Indians, also used. They called it the "Indian root." And indeed, this grass is primarily female. Rare in the plant kingdom phytohormones will be excellent helpers for women during menopause.
- Hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness and all the other "delights" of menopause, which are due to the high content of luteinizing hormone, are perfectly stopped by taking drugs based on tsimitsifugi.
- It inhibits the production of this hormone by the pituitary gland, thereby normalizing the hormonal background. But the number of estrogens, which are not sufficiently produced in the menopause, they increase. Thanks to their mild effect, the risk of breast cancer, which often happens during this period, is reduced.
- Possessing an antispasmodic effect, tsimitsifugi preparations help to relax the muscles of the uterus, improving its blood supply during childbirth and reducing pain during menstruation and after childbirth.
- The anti-inflammatory properties of black cohosh are known, which allows it to be used for pain in muscles and joints, as well as neuralgia. Soothing properties are used for vegetative-vascular dystonia and mental problems.
- If the cough is associated with thick sputum, cimicifugi-based drugs will solve this problem well. They help to cope with high blood pressure, migraine, kidney disease and sclerosis, and can resist osteoporosis.
Voronets is listed in the official pharmacopeia of many countries of the world.
The use of Actaea racemosis in homeopathy
The healing properties of black cohosh racemose are often used in homeopathy. For injections, dilutions from D1 to D10 are used. First of all, they are used for various diseases and disorders in the female genital area. Tsimitsifuga - one of the components of the famous drug Remens.
Psychoemotional and autonomic complaints are an indication for taking homeopathic medicines tsimitsifugi. Its action in this case is scientifically proven. After 60 days, the number of cured reaches 20%, in the remaining patients there is a significant improvement. For treatment, homeopathic balls of Cimicifuga D3-D6 are prescribed. They are also prescribed for seasonal depression, osteochondrosis, pain in muscles and joints, spasms in the digestive tract.
Traditional medicine recipes with tsimitsifugoy
Modern official medicine considers cimicifuga-based drugs as dietary supplements. But traditional medicine uses it much more widely. For example, in China it is an antidote to most poisonous reptiles, insects and arthropods.
For colds and joint pain
Roots in an amount of 5 g are poured with 2 glasses of water. After 5 minutes of boiling and 2 hours of infusion, the broth is filtered. The norm of taking a quarter glass from 2 to 3 times during the day. This decoction also helps with gynecological diseases, hypertension.
If muscles or joints hurt, a compress from a strong decoction of black cohosh in a small amount of water will help. Cook it for 30 minutes.
You can make a compress from fresh leaves that are crushed. They keep such a compress for only 0.5 hours. It will help with skin diseases.
A tablespoon of dry grass is poured into 1.5 cups of water. After 3 minutes of boiling and insisting for an hour, filter and drink 1 tbsp. spoon after eating 3 times a day.
5 g of grass is poured into a glass of water. After five minutes of boiling and hourly insisting, the filtered broth is drunk in 100 ml 2 times a day.
Prepare it from 1 part of dry roots and 5 parts of 70% alcohol. Insist 5-6 days in the dark. After filtering it is taken from 20 to 30 drops per day 3 times. Tincture is effective in the same diseases as decoctions.
Tsimitsifugi drugs are effective in many diseases, but they also have their contraindications.
Contraindications and harm black cohosh
Before being treated with tsimitsifugi drugs, like other medicinal herbs, it is necessary to consult a doctor. Absolute contraindications are:
- pregnancy and breastfeeding;
- severe liver disease;
- condition after a stroke;
- an allergy to salicylates and intolerance to plants of the buttercup family.
Caution should be used when:
- taking hormonal contraceptives;
- taking antihypertensive drugs.
A side effect of taking medications based on black cohosh is expressed in the development of indigestion, dizziness, headache and nausea. Long-term use of drugs can adversely affect the liver.
Useful properties of black cohosh
Tsimitsifuga is a plant with unique medicinal properties, but it should be used with caution, and be sure to consult a doctor.