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Pigs of the Mangal breed are eye-catching with their unusual appearance. They have a thick, curly coat that allows them to winter outdoors. In Russia, the breed is very rare and highly valued among farmers.
What is this breed "Mangal"
As you can see in the photo, Mangal pigs are distinguished by an unusual appearance, however, the main feature of the breed is considered to be high productivity and a thin greasy layer, which makes pig products especially expensive. Pigs of the Mangal breed belong to the meat direction.
The history of the creation and conservation of the breed
The Mangal pig breed appeared in 1830 in Hungary. One of the Hungarian nobles, Duke Josef, decided to breed domestic pigs with wild pigs living in the Carpathians. The Mediterranean pigs Sumadia were taken as a basis.
The Duke wanted to create a breed of pigs that would be maximally adapted to the climatic conditions of the area. The attempt was crowned with success, and breeders bred a new breed of curly pigs that are immune to a variety of diseases that affect domestic animals. These pigs could live on the street at any time of the year and in any weather; they did not need a full-fledged pigsty. In terms of nutrition, simple pasture was sufficient for the pigs.
Thanks to such significant advantages, the breed quickly became popular throughout the Austrian Empire and Ukrainian Transcarpathia. Often it was bred on the farms of churches and monasteries. The breed was so highly appreciated and recognized that in 1833 a law was passed prohibiting the crossing of Mangal pigs with other breeds.
When World War II ended, Mangal pigs were on the verge of extinction. The authorities of Hungary and Ukraine considered the breed useless, and almost all the pigs were put under the knife. By the early 1970s of the XX century. There are only about 200 brazier pigs left. However, already in the 80s of the same century, the Hungarian authorities launched a program to restore this valuable breed, to which at the beginning of the 21st century. joined by Austria, America and Britain. Somewhat later, Russia and Ukraine began to import these pigs.
What kind of meat does Mangal pigs have?
"Marble" pig meat Mangal is juicy and tasty. It is many times more tender than the meat of pigs of other breeds and has practically no fatty layers. The carcass contains about 70 - 80% of meat. That is why Mangalov meat is characterized by high consumer value.
Advice! It is possible to improve the taste and quality of boar meat by neutering piglets at one month of age. During puberty, estrogen is released in the animal's body, and it is he who gives the boar meat an unpleasant taste and aroma.
Characteristics of Mangal pigs
As you can see from the photo, Mangal pigs are distinguished by long, thick hair, curling into small rings. Wool somewhat resembles sheep's wool, is soft and pleasant to the touch. In Hungary, the pig of this breed is also called "curly pig", in England - "sheep-pig" (sheep-pig), and in Russia - "Hungarian downy pig mangalitsa".
The mangalitsa's wool is thickest in winter, this protects them from severe frosts. In the spring, the hairline of animals becomes thinner, and black stripes appear on the back of pigs, typical of wild boar ancestors. Piglets are also born with stripes on their backs. If you constantly keep Mangal pigs in a warm pigsty, the wool necessary to adapt to frost will practically disappear.
There are 4 varieties of Mangal pigs color: swallow, white, red and black. White pigs are about 80% of the total livestock. Red pigs are characterized by the highest productivity, they were bred by crossing white pigs with the Szalontai breed. Swallow pigs were bred by crossing white pigs with the Sirius breed, a distinctive characteristic of which is a larger physique.
Description and photo of the Mangal pig breed:
- animals have medium-sized ears, strong, thin limbs;
- are distinguished by thick, curly hair;
- live weight of a sow can reach 160 - 200 kg;
- boars, as a rule, weigh about 200 - 300 kg;
- have a strong constitution and strong skeleton.
Photo of Mangalov pigs:
Photos of Mangalov piglets:
Important! Mangal pigs reach sexual maturity at the age of 5 to 7 months.
Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of the Mangal pig breed:
- undemanding care;
- early onset of puberty;
- high percentage of meat content (70 - 80%);
- excellent taste of meat products;
- inexpensive feed;
- resistance to low temperatures;
- immunity to many diseases.
Disadvantages of the Mangal pig breed:
- rare breed for Russia;
- the high cost of pigs and piglets;
- the need for maintenance in semi-wild conditions (walking);
- when overfeeding, animals are prone to obesity, which reduces the quality of the resulting meat products;
The cost of Mongolian pigs and piglets
Since Mongolian pigs are considered rare animals in Russia, the price for them is quite high. On average, Mongolian piglets are sold for 12-20 thousand rubles. That is why the breeding of Hungarian downy pigs is an extremely profitable business.
How to determine the authenticity of Mangal piglets
When buying piglets, it is important to pay attention to the purity of the breed. To verify the authenticity of the animal, you can request a certificate from the seller, which is a confirmation of the pedigree.
Piglets should be bought only from proven pig farms. It is advisable to ask the seller to show the parents of the pig before buying: this way, the risk of acquiring a non-purebred pig can be minimized.
Features of keeping pigs Brazier
Mangal pigs are semi-wild: in the summer they are able to eat pasture on their own. Reviews of farmers indicate that caring for Mangal pigs is not difficult, but their maintenance may require a spacious walking area.
Despite the fact that Mangalov can be kept outdoors all year round, in winter it is still advisable for them to take shelter from severe frosts, especially for small pigs. Therefore, in addition to the walking area, you will also need to build a pigsty.
Feeding Mongolian pigs and piglets
Mongolian pigs are unpretentious in feeding, animals are omnivores, so they do not need a lot of food. If the pig gets enough nutrients, it can increase its weight by more than 600 g per day.
To ensure the growth of muscle mass in a short time, Mangal pigs should eat a lot of greens. In summer, they regulate their food and diet themselves, but in winter, animal feed must contain vegetables, grain and hay. Ideally, 70% of the diet should consist of root vegetables, corn tops and herb hay, and 30% should be acorns and chestnuts.
Piglets are taught to get pasture at an early age. To do this, you can send them to walk with the sow. If walking the pigs in the summer is not possible, you will also have to procure feed for them.
The introduction of cereals into the diet will help accelerate the growth of piglets. Vegetables can include carrots, pumpkin, squash, potatoes and beets. In addition to vegetables, pigs can also eat fruits. Vegetables and fruits are grated and only then given to animals.
Important! Pigs should not be given apricots. Their bones contain substances that cause poisoning in animals.
Newborn piglets of the Mangal breed need complementary foods, starting from the 3rd - 5th day of life. At first, they can be fed a little bit of liquid chatterbox and roasted barley grains. Introducing chalk, clay, and bone meal into the diet will also be helpful. After reaching three weeks of age, piglets can eat in the same way as adult animals.
When Mangal pigs reach a weight of 150 kg, it is important to diversify their diet and monitor a balanced diet. A lack of nutrients can completely stop the growth of a pig. It is also extremely important for pigs to have fresh, clean water freely available.
Pigs of the Mangal breed are famous for their strong immunity, but they can still be affected by diseases such as distemper, encephalitis, erysipelas, foot and mouth disease, ascariasis, leptospirosis.
To prevent the development of these diseases, it is necessary to vaccinate animals. Timely vaccination will ensure the health of all pigs and other farm inhabitants.
Caring for pigs and piglets of the Mangal breed
If Mangalov piglets are fattened for slaughter, castration of animals at the age of 1 - 1.5 months is mandatory. After such a procedure, the weight of the animals, as a rule, begins to grow.
The room for keeping pigs The brazier should be large. The area should be calculated based on the fact that one pig needs about 5 square meters for a comfortable existence. m.
If there are few pigs, when laying the floor in the pigsty, an earthen mound is usually made, which is covered with boards on top. If the herd is large, the best option would be to use a concrete slit. At the time of laying the floor, it is also important to think about the construction of gutters for the removal of faeces.
Ventilation in the room should be good. Lighting is also important: if there is too much light, pigs can become restless. The organization of the water supply in the pigsty will greatly simplify cleaning.
Important! In winter, the temperature in the pigsty should be kept at least 0 degrees.
Arrangement of a walking area
Brazier pigs are large enough, therefore, the area for their walking should be spacious. The territory must be fenced off with a strong and stable fence that can withstand the onslaught of pigs and does not let predators inside. If you equip a walking area under a canopy, pigs will be able to hide under it from the wind and precipitation.
It is extremely important to clear the walking area of poisonous plants in advance. The site needs to be planted with grass, small bushes will do. Vegetable food for animals should be sufficient, it is the main source of energy for pigs.
Mangal sows reach sexual maturity at the age of 5 - 7 months. However, animals weighing less than 100 kg are not recommended. In one pregnancy, a sow can give birth to 12-16 piglets. Lack of own weight will negatively affect the offspring, it may be born weak or unviable.
The duration of pregnancy for sows is 112 - 120 days. Sows are capable of farrowing independently. Piglets grow rather quickly, by the time they reach one month old they become independent of the sow. The sow is ready for re-mating within 5 - 7 days after the piglets have been weaned. This allows you to get 2 litters per year.
Pigs of the Mangal breed are semi-wild animals that do not require special care. Almost any food, including pasture, is suitable for them as food, and for maintenance it will be necessary to build a pigsty and a walking area. Mangal breeding is a profitable business as the animals are highly valued among farmers and quickly gain a large mass.
Antonina Gennadievna Levchenko, 42 years old, Barnaul
I bought several Mangals this year, white and reddish colors. I think to knit this summer. I got about 12 thousand rubles apiece. Pigs are good enough for everyone, very good breed
Inna Zaitseva, 60 years old, Moscow region
My husband and I have 7 sows and 1 Mangal boar on our farm. We've been keeping it for about six months. In terms of content, they are unpretentious, they grow quickly. We saw the father of our boar, so he probably weighs three hundred kilograms.
Konstantin Leonidovich, 56 years old, Altai region
A year ago I bought Mangal pigs. I took two males and two females from different families. When the females reached a weight of 110 kg, they happened. One of these days I am waiting for the replenishment of the livestock, very exciting! In general, the breed is good, pigs live calmly in winter even in cold pigsties.