In the fall, when the harvest is in the bins, the gardeners have a lot to do to prepare the suburban area for the next season. These include planting garlic in the winter. An important task is reduced to the preparation of planting material and soil. Proper preparation of garlic for planting in the fall is a guarantee of a rich harvest.
It often happens that gardeners try to plant garlic in both spring and autumn. But the result remains deplorable in both cases: small heads that are not stored rot and deteriorate. Therefore, for many, the question remains how to prepare garlic for planting.
Most likely, the planting of garlic was carried out without preliminary soil preparation and without taking into account the previous crops. The yield of garlic will be much higher if it is planted after:
- Early varieties and cauliflower;
- Zucchini, pumpkin, squash;
- Early potatoes;
- Peas, beans, beans.
The least recommended planting of garlic after:
- Greens: onions, celery, lettuce, spinach, radish;
- Spicy herbs: cilantro, parsley, mint, basil, coriander.
Crops: tomatoes, peppers, garlic, eggplant, beets, onions, late varieties of cabbage allow planting garlic after them, without affecting the harvest.
Light loams, neutral in acidity, are most suitable for garlic. If the soil in the garden is acidic, then it is recommended to deacidify the garlic bed. Add: dolomite flour, slaked lime, chalk, limestone, ash, 1 cup per 1 sq. m of soil.
Garlic does not like shady areas and poorly drained soil.
Important! Choose a site for garlic that will be the first to free itself of melting snow in the spring, on which there will be no stagnation of melt water.
Before planting, the soil should be fertilized with compost or humus and fertilizers: double superphosphate and potassium sulfate, 1 tbsp each. l. and 2 tbsp. respectively, for 1 sq.m.
They dig up the earth, form a bed, its width is no more than 1 m, its height is up to 30 cm.
If it is not possible to observe the crop rotation, then the soil for garlic should be prepared more carefully: disinfect it with copper sulfate at the rate of 5 liters of the dissolved preparation per 1 sq. m of soil. For solution: dissolve 5 tbsp in 1 bucket of hot water. substances.
It is recommended to add urea for planting garlic: per 1 sq. m soil half 1 tbsp. l.
Those who want to get clean products without the use of chemicals can use green fertilizers - siderates. They form a powerful root system that improves the permeability of the soil to water and air. And the green mass, which grows very quickly, after embedding it in the soil, saturates the soil with organic matter.
At the end of August, seeds of peas, barley, mustard, and beans are sown. After the above-ground part becomes about 30 cm in height, it is mowed and embedded in the soil. Before the onset of cold weather, the green mass will have time to decompose. Garlic can be planted in the prepared soil.
Attention! From the 15th of September to the second 15th of October is the time for planting the culture.
You should focus on climatic conditions and weather forecast for your region. Planting too early can lead to germination and the appearance of greenery, which will freeze with the arrival of cold weather, the plants will die. The planted teeth will not have time to form a root system, which will also lead to their death if they were planted too late.
The teeth do not need to be pressed into the soil, this can damage the bottom. It is better to make holes or trenches, put compost and humus on the bottom. Lay out the cloves and sprinkle with soil. An interval of 20 cm is observed between the rows of plantings, and 10-15 between the teeth. The depth of the holes is 5-7 cm.
Then the planting should be covered with mulch. This will be an additional guarantee of frost protection. Fallen leaves, mown grass, straw are used as mulch. In the spring, the mulch layer must be removed so that the soil dries out and warms up faster.
Watch a helpful video:
Preparation of planting material
Preparatory actions begin with a visual inspection for visible damage. If a batch of garlic prepared for planting has a high percentage of damaged cloves, then such garlic is not recommended to be planted. It should be replaced completely.
If there are no external damages, signs of rot, spots, then the largest heads are selected. They are divided into cloves shortly before planting. The largest teeth are chosen for planting.
Advice! If there were only 3-4 teeth in the head, even if they were very large, then they should not be taken for planting. This is a sure sign of cultural degeneration.
If there is an excess of planting material, then the largest of the selected cloves are planted. If not enough, then calibrated in three groups: large, medium and small. And planted accordingly in groups. So, you get smoother seedlings and harvest.
Garlic cloves should be without damage to the skin and bottom, which should be evenly colored in a light gray color. They should not be wet, which can provoke the growth of ground mass, which is not required from garlic in the fall, it should only grow roots.
In order for the garlic to grow large, not to acquire any diseases, which will cause it to rot during storage, the garlic is processed before planting. How to process the planting material?
- A weak solution of potassium permanganate. Its color should be barely pink. The cloves of garlic are placed in the solution just before planting for 30-60 minutes;
- 1% solution of copper sulfate. Soaking takes about 10 hours. Can be soaked in the evening to land in the morning;
- With a solution of table salt: take 3 tbsp for 5 liters of water. l., dissolve, soak the teeth for 2-3 minutes, take out and dip in a solution of copper sulfate for 1 minute, immediately plant it;
- Step by step in 3 solutions: 1st solution - nitroammophoska (1 tbsp. / 10 l), soaking time - day, 2nd solution - strong saline solution (5 tbsp. L / 5 l), time - up to half an hour, 3 -th solution - copper sulfate (1 tbsp. / 10 l), time - 1 minute;
- With an ash solution - 1 tbsp. / 1 l of water. Ash is well stirred in water, it is better to take a fine fraction, give time for the settling of heavy particles, the upper part is used for soaking for 1 hour;
- You can treat garlic with Maxim. The peculiarity of its action is that it acts as an antibiotic, however, it has a completely natural origin, its protective effect is preserved during the entire growing season. For processing garlic in the fall before planting, one ampoule diluted in 1 liter of water will be enough. The teeth are processed for half an hour. The same solution can be used for dressing, for example, bulbous plants, and after use, it can be poured onto a garden bed under garlic;
- Another drug used to treat garlic is Fitolavin. Protects against damage by bacterial infections, root rot, fungal diseases. The peculiarity of the drug is its high efficiency and the fact that it heals already affected plants. Dilute Fitolavin according to the instructions;
- Fitsporin-M is used to protect garlic in the fall. The drug is of natural origin, based on spores of soil bacteria. When it gets into water, it begins its vital activity, destroys other bacteria and fungal spores that cause diseases. Plants have increased immunity, they become more resistant to diseases. The drug increases the safety of garlic bulbs. Pre-planting soaking lasts 1 hour. How to dilute Fitosporin-M, read the instructions. It comes in liquid form, powder and paste.
You should not avoid pre-planting seed preparation, so you will protect the plants and increase the shelf life of the garlic.
In order for the culture to survive the winter, it is necessary to properly prepare the soil for garlic. But this is not enough. It is important that the plants not only develop well, but also give a decent harvest that will last for a long time without damage. Therefore, seed preparation should be carried out.