When choosing varieties of tomatoes for open beds, it is necessary to pay attention not only to their early maturity, but also to cold resistance, the height of the bushes and taste. The concept of "taste" includes such a parameter as "sugar content", applied to tomatoes in the same sense as to watermelons. The color, shape and size of tomatoes is determined by the tastes of tomato growers.
With rare exceptions, early and ultra-early ripening tomato varieties are determinant and very often standard.
Attention! Standard tomatoes are the most unpretentious of all varieties, of which there are already more than 10,000.
Standard determinants need minimal care, do not require pinching, but they need a garter to a support, since with high yields and large tomatoes, plants can break under the weight of sap-filled tomatoes.
In the southern regions, standard tomatoes are always planted in open ground, since of all the early varieties of tomatoes, they have the highest cold resistance. In colder areas, they can be grown in greenhouses.
Advice! For outdoor cultivation, it is better to choose the smallest of the standard tomato varieties.
It should be borne in mind that the yield of tomato bushes in open ground is lower than in greenhouses.
Just like other tomatoes, early ripening varieties of tomatoes begin to be planted at the end of March for seedlings. But what to do if there is no room for many seedling containers in the apartment on the windowsill, and each type of vegetable requires its own germination mode. Far from always, a gardener can provide specific conditions for each vegetable.
With early ripe tomatoes, there is an option for seedless sowing, but only if there is a cold film greenhouse.
In such a greenhouse, beds are prepared in advance at the end of March and arcs are placed over them, which are covered with non-woven material. For some time, the ground under the arcs warms up. In the second half of April, tomato seeds are planted in the beds and each hole is covered with a plastic bottle with a cut-off bottom.
Prior to the emergence of seedlings, the seeds are protected from the cold by three layers of insulating materials. After emergence, the bottles are removed, leaving the non-woven material on the arcs and plastic wrap on the greenhouse itself. Depending on the ambient temperature, the seedling temperature can be adjusted by removing or throwing the material over the arches.
With the onset of warm days, if there is such an opportunity, the film can be removed from the frame of the greenhouse itself, leaving the tomatoes to grow in the open air.
When choosing early ripening varieties of tomatoes for open ground, be sure to pay attention to a completely unique ultra-early variety, bred in Transnistria, "Zagadka".
Ultra-ripe tomato varieties
Determinate undersized variety with a powerful trunk. The height of the bush is half a meter. According to gardeners' reviews, it ranks first among ultra-early ripening varieties of tomatoes. From the moment of sowing the seeds to harvesting, no more than 90 days pass. With an average density of 7 bushes per meter, 20 kg of tomatoes can be obtained per unit area.
Attention! "Riddle" without exaggeration is a unique variety among ultra-early tomatoes. Differs in friendly shoots that grow literally "by the clock".
Tomatoes and bushes grow surprisingly even in size. If the growth of bushes is about 0.5 m, then the weight of tomatoes of this variety is up to 100 g.
The pulp of the fruit is dense, which allows you to take the tomatoes home safe and sound, not only in a box, but also in a regular bag. Also, tomatoes of this variety have the best taste, being the record holder among the early varieties of tomatoes in this parameter. Usually, early varieties of tomatoes do not boast a wonderful taste, more suitable for conservation and culinary processing, which sharpens the taste of tomatoes.
Tomato bushes "Riddle" with a lot of leaves do not need to be tied up, they have very strong branches. But the variety has a drawback: a very large number of stepsons that need to be removed in time so that they do not take food from the ovaries. If the stepsons are not removed, the tomatoes will turn out to be small.
But you can increase the number of bushes of this variety by rooting remote stepchildren. Stepchildren take root very easily at Riddle. In this case, it will be possible to get a harvest from the stepsons one and a half later than the mother bush, thus extending the fruiting period of the variety.
Not only ultra-early, but also an ultra-determinant variety for open ground, capable of growing not only in the garden, but also on the balcony.
The height of the bush is no more than 0.4 m. The plant is standard, does not need a garter, does not require pinching. Vegetation 95 days. From the pros - a friendly return of the harvest.
With a small bush, the fruits are quite decent in size and weigh an average of 150 g. The purpose of the variety is universal.
A relatively new variety, bred in 2001 and found its fans. Grows well in open-air beds. Ultra early variety, requiring 85 days before picking the first tomatoes.
Among its determinant companions, this is a rather tall variety, growing up to 90 cm. 5 kg of tomatoes are obtained from one plant. There should be no more than 5 bushes of this variety per square meter.
Important! The cultivar has an eponymous twin hybrid of the same name.
The pulp of tomatoes has good taste. The shape is spherical, slightly flattened. The usual weight is about 125 g. First stage tomatoes can grow up to 150 g. Ripe pink fruits. The variety is versatile. It is often used for canning and cask pickling.
The advantages of the variety are: good taste, high keeping quality, resistance to sudden temperature changes, immunity to many diseases, and drought resistance.
The disadvantages are the high exactingness to agricultural technology. With illiterate care, it loses its taste. Requires an obligatory garter, since the branches break off due to the relatively high height of the bush and a large number of rather large tomatoes. In this respect, Katyusha loses to Riddle. Demanding on fertilizers.
Features of agricultural technology
It is better to grow the variety outdoors in the southern regions. To the north, it grows well in greenhouses. The difference in growing conditions does not affect the yield.
With all its resistance to diseases, the variety is susceptible to phomosis and dry spotting.
Attention! When growing "Katyusha" it is very important to observe the fertilization regime. If the order of dressings is violated, the variety loses its taste.
An ultra-early variety bred specifically for cold regions. Grown in the open air and in greenhouses. The bush is not standard, with limited growth. It grows no more than 40 cm. Due to its small growth, it can be grown on balconies. Does not require formation.
The ovaries are formed by 3-5 brushes. The weight of ripe tomatoes is 140 g. Ripe tomatoes are of dense red color. The pulp is juicy, dense, sweetish taste.
The advantages of the variety are drought resistance and cold resistance, high immunity to diseases, and undemanding care.
Advice! It is preferable to grow the variety in seedlings, treating the seeds with a growth stimulant.
Young tomatoes are planted on the beds by the beginning of June.
Early ripe tomato varieties
Tomato "White filling"
Undersized, no more than 50 cm in the open field, not a standard variety. The plant is determinate. Bred in the Kazakh SSR and loved by several generations of gardeners. It was registered in the State Register 50 years ago.
Early variety. Until the first tomatoes ripen, depending on weather conditions, no more than a hundred days pass. The variety does not require a garter and pinching.
The tomatoes are spherical, medium-sized, weighing 100 g. Ripe tomatoes are red, but the variety got its name because of the color of the fruit during ripening. Initially, tomatoes are light green in color, as they ripen, they brighten more and more, starting in color to resemble the "White filling" apple variety.
The initial goal of breeding in the breeding of this variety was to process the crop into tomato products, but it turned out that this variety tastes quite good when fresh. Nevertheless, it makes excellent ketchup, tomato paste and juice. Although the juice will be a little thick.
The advantages of the variety, carried through time, are: unpretentiousness to weather and care, early maturity and a friendly return of the harvest, good taste, resistance to cracking on a bush and during conservation.
Disadvantages appeared after the breeding of new, more productive varieties. Today, these include an average yield (3 kg per bush) and an average resistance to diseases.
The variety is prone to late blight, which does not have time to get to it, since the crop ripens earlier. At the same time, it is immune to macrosporiosis.
Attention! Tomatoes are infected with macrosporiosis when sowing untreated seeds.
Features of agricultural technology
Since "White filling" is a variety and you can get seeds from it, before planting the seeds must be treated with disinfectants without fail.
The ideal place for cultivation of the variety is Kazakhstan, but "White filling" grows just as well in Ukraine and in the southern regions of Russia.
Important! Before sowing, in addition to seeds, it is necessary to disinfect the soil.
Tomato "Korneevsky Red"
Early ripe indeterminate tomato. The bush is powerful, densely leafy, up to 1.5 m high. Up to 6 kg of tomatoes are removed from one bush. Tomatoes are tied with small tassels of 3-4 fruits each.
Large-fruited, therefore, the bush requires mandatory tying to a solid support. The weight of tomatoes starts from 0.5 kg. Tomatoes on the lower branches can grow up to 1 kg.
The fruits are round, with a dense glossy skin. When ripe, it has a deep red color. The pulp is fleshy, moderately dense, sweetish in taste.
The appointment is universal. Recommended for both private household plots and farms.
Large-fruited variety of determinant type. The height of the bushes is up to 60 cm. It is not a stamp. Needs a garter, but does not require pinning. Can be grown in all regions of the Russian Federation.
Important! This variety is hybrid and has a "twin": an F1 hybrid of the same name, which differs from the described variety in terms of ripening and other growing requirements.
"Fatima" is an early cultivar with a vegetative period of 85 days, which grows well in the open air. Fatima F1 is an early hybrid for greenhouse conditions. Both varieties are resistant to diseases, not susceptible to late blight and show high yields.
"Fatima" is a pink heart-shaped tomato with an average weight of 350 g. The fleshy pulp has a pleasant sweetish taste. Tomatoes are resistant to cracking.
The appointment is universal.
A few tips to help you get an early and rich harvest
Copper wire against late blight
The scourge of many garden crops is late blight, due to which the entire crop can be lost in the bud. As a preventive measure, piercing the lower part of the stem with copper wire is used. The copper is left in the stem.
Copper against late blight:
Important! Copper must be brushed to a shine.
All foreign particles such as insulation residues, oxides, lubricating oil must be cleaned off.
Particles of copper will be picked up by juices and spread throughout the tomato bush, and fungi do not like copper.
It should be borne in mind that this is only one of the methods of protection used in the complex. Tomato bushes should at least be protected from rains and cold dew, not counting on only one copper wire.
There is one more thing. The copper will build up in the tomatoes. True, it is unlikely that it will be able to accumulate in quantities harmful to the body. Man needs copper as a trace element, and fertilizers with copper content increase the productivity of plants.
How to speed up the ripening of tomatoes
Acceleration of the ripening of tomatoes on the bush instead of ripening green fruits is especially important for rather cold regions, for example, the Urals. The basic principle underlying all these methods is to limit the supply of nutrients from the soil in order to force the plants to fight for survival and start working for the seeds.
First of all, they stop fertilizing the bushes and stop abundant watering. The lower leaves are cut off completely so that nutrition goes to the fruits, and not to the foliage.
There are five mechanical ways to speed up the ripening of tomatoes, applied to tomatoes grown in unprotected soil.
- In low-growing bushes, the branches are turned towards the sun and fixed with spacers. Spacers are placed under the brushes with fruits.
- The tops of the bushes are pinched, leaving only brushes with ovaries. Two leaves are left above the brushes to ensure the growth of the fruit.
- Plants are sprayed with an iodine solution at the rate of 35 drops of iodine per 10 liters of water for one and a half running meters of a bed.
- Low-growing and medium-sized determinant bushes can grow 4-5 brushes to the maximum, so all unnecessary inflorescences are mercilessly broken out.
- At the end of summer, when the tomatoes have already grown and entered the ripening stage, do one of the following:
- holding the tomato bush by the lower part of the stem, pull it up a little several times. At the same time, the stem is twisted in a spiral;
- in the lower part of the stem, at a distance of 100-120 mm from the ground, a slit 70-100 mm long is cut with a sharp knife. To prevent the gap from closing, it is necessary to place a chip with a diameter of 5 mm in it;
- 30-40 mm from the ground, a thin copper wire is tightened on the stem, wrapping it around the stem several times.
Usually, early ripe tomato varieties are not able to shake with a unique taste, but they can be used to make wonderful homemade ketchup and mild adjika.
And of course, early tomatoes can be used in vitamin salads made from fresh vegetables.