One of the dangers that can threaten apple trees is freezing in frosty winters. This is especially true for Siberia and the Urals. The apple variety Sverdlovsk is bred specifically for the northern regions. In addition to cold resistance, it has other qualities that are valuable for gardeners.
Description of the apple variety Sverdlovsk
The variety "Sverdlovchanin" is distinguished by frost resistance, this property allows it to be grown in the Urals and Siberia. In order to avoid mistakes when choosing and growing a tree, you need to pay attention to the description and characteristics of the variety.
The variety was bred quite recently, entered into the State Register in 2018, zoned for the Ural region. Originator - FGBNU "Ural Federal Agrarian Research Center of the Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences". "Sverdlovsk resident" was obtained from pollination of the apple-tree "Yantar" with pollen of the varieties "Zvezdochka", "Orange", "Samotsvet".
Fruit and tree appearance
This early winter variety ripens late. The height of the apple tree "Sverdlovchanin" is at least 3-4 m, maybe more, it grows quickly. The crown is thin, spreading, straight branches are rare, located almost horizontally. Leaves are medium in size, wrinkled, green.
The apples of the "Sverdlovchanin" variety are medium, one-dimensional, weighing about 70 g, regular round shape, slightly ribbed, without rustiness. The main color of the skin is whitish and light yellow. There are small, greenish, subcutaneous dots.
Fruits are almost the same medium size, so they can be preserved
The pulp of Sverdlovchanin apples is white, dense, fine-grained, juicy and tender. The taste is sweet and sour, there is a faint aroma. Apples contain 14.3% dry matter, 11.4% sugar, 15.1% vitamin C. The taste was rated by the tasters at 4.8 points.
The Sverdlovchanin variety was developed for the Ural region, but it can be grown in Siberia, the Volga region, the Moscow region and the northern regions. Due to their high frost resistance, the trees are able to withstand the severe frosts characteristic of these areas.
The average yield of the Sverdlovchanin apple tree is 34 kg per square meter. m. There is no periodicity of fruiting, it begins to bear fruit at 5-6 years of age. With each season, the number of fruits increases and reaches a peak by the age of 12.
An apple tree of the "Sverdlovchanin" variety can withstand frosts below -40 ˚С even without shelter, autumn and spring frosting is also not terrible for it. In winter and spring, he can get sunburn, so that this does not happen, you need to whitewash the trunk and branches of the tree.
Disease and pest resistance
Almost not affected by scab, resistant to powdery mildew. In high humidity conditions, it can be damaged by fungal diseases.
At 12 years after planting, the yield from one tree can be 100 kg
Flowering period and ripening period
Apple trees "Sverdlovsk" bloom, depending on the region, during May. The fruits ripen in late September or early October. Freshly picked apples are consumed fresh, they are also suitable for canning and making juice, jam, any sweet homemade preparations.
Sverdlovchanin apple trees do not need pollinators. The variety is self-fertile, the flowers are pollinated with their own pollen.
Transportation and keeping quality
Sverdlovchanin apple-tree fruits with dense skin, withstand transportation well. They are stored for a long time, in a cool and dry place they can lie until March. If you keep them in the refrigerator, then the shelf life increases by a month.
Advantages and disadvantages
The Sverdlovchanin variety is attractive for gardeners because it is characterized by high winter hardiness, stable yield, and yields tasty fruits of good quality. Resistance to heat and drought is average.
The disadvantages are as follows:
- Fruits are not too large.
- Late ripening.
- Late entry into fruiting.
The main quality of this apple tree is cold resistance.
Apple trees grow well in sunny or slightly shaded areas. It is not recommended to plant in the shade of other trees. They prefer fertile and moist soil of neutral acidity. Soil type - loam or sandy loam. Planting time is autumn, after foliage has fallen, or in spring, before bud break.
Attention! Saplings 1 or 2 years old take root best, older ones are worse. It is one-year or two-year-olds that you need to choose when buying.
Before planting, young trees must undergo preparation - you need to cut off the tips of the roots and put the seedlings in a solution of a root formation stimulator. If the seedling has a closed root system, no preparation is required.
The diameter and depth of the planting holes should be approximately 0.7 m. The crown of the Sverdlovchanin apple tree in meters reaches a width of 4 m. This means that such a distance should be left between the plants in a row, the aisle should be made a little wider - 5 m. With a smaller area trees will grow worse, yields will decrease.
- Lay a drainage layer (small pebbles, pieces of slate or brick) at the bottom of the planting pit.
- Place the seedling in the center, spread the roots.
- Fill up the voids with a mixture extracted from digging a hole of earth and humus, taken in a 1 to 1 ratio.
- Pour 1-2 buckets of water over the tree.
- Slightly compact the ground and cover the trunk circle with mulching material. This can be straw, hay, fallen leaves, shavings, sawdust and needles. You can use agrofiber.
Place a support near the seedling and tie the trunk to it with twine so that the tree grows evenly.
Growing and care
At first, after planting, the apple tree "Sverdlovsk" is watered 1-2 times a week, after rooting - about 1 time in 14 days, in the heat it can be done more often, adult trees - only in drought.
Advice! To reduce the rate of evaporation of moisture from the soil, a layer of mulch should be laid on the ground and replaced annually.
On loamy soils, the hole after watering must be leveled so that after the sediment water does not accumulate there
Top dressing in the first year is not required for the apple-tree sapling of the "Sverdlovchanin" variety, as long as the nutrition that was introduced during planting is sufficient for it. The first feeding is carried out for the next spring: 1 bucket of humus and 1-2 kg of ash are introduced. Adult apple trees are fertilized 2 times per season: in spring, after the snow melts, organic matter is scattered, after flowering and during the growth of the ovary, mineral fertilizers are used. The solution is poured under the root, after watering, if there is no mulch, the earth is loosened.
The first pruning of the "Sverdlovsk" apple tree is carried out the next spring after planting; part of the central conductor and the tops of the lateral branches are removed from the apple tree. Then, once a year, in spring or autumn, cut off the excess branches directed inside the crown, frozen, drying up.
Preventive spraying of the Sverdlovchanin apple tree is carried out against fungal diseases (especially after a period of rains) and from the main pests: flower beetle, moth and aphids. Use synthetic insecticides and fungicides.
Advice! Despite the fact that the Sverdlovchanin apple tree is cold-resistant, young, freshly planted seedlings for the winter need to be covered.
Collection and storage
You can pick Sverdlovchanin apples when they are fully ripe or slightly unripe. Collection time - late September or early October. Store only in a cool and dry place (cellar, basement, refrigerator) at temperatures from 0 to 10 ˚С and humidity not higher than 70%. Under these storage conditions, apples can lie with minimal losses until spring. They need to be stored in shallow boxes or baskets, laying in 1-2 layers.
The apple variety Sverdlovsk is distinguished by high frost resistance, therefore it is suitable for cultivation in the Urals, Siberia and in the northern regions. Fruits ripen late, but can be stored for a long time. The taste of apples is classic sweet and sour, they can be used for eating fresh and for making canned fruits.
Mikhail Agashkin, 55 years old, Nizhny Tagil
I planted an apple tree of the "Sverdlovchanin" variety several years ago; last year I got my first harvest. The fruits are not very large, but incredibly tasty and juicy. The apples ripen late, so almost all of them have been put away for storage. They survived well, there was almost no waste.
Nikolay Tarasov, 38 years old, Ishim
The Sverdlovchanin variety is just right for our climate: it does not freeze in winter, the harvest happens every year, without periodicity. Thanks to timely treatments for diseases and pests, I always get a large harvest, not spoiled by diseases or insects. The fruits are stored perfectly, apples can be canned, juices, preserves, jams, etc. can be cooked from them.
Alena Tikhonova, 25 years old, Dekhtyarsk
Often, after severe winters, the trees in the garden, if not completely frozen, were severely damaged by frost. I had to look for a cold-resistant apple variety, and my choice settled on "Sverdlovchanin". Still, it was bred for our area. It turned out that the trees really tolerate frost well, bloom and bear fruit every year. Apples are always tasty, ripen, of course, late, but they are stored for a long time.