Planting and caring for tamarix outdoors allows you to grow a stunningly beautiful ornamental shrub in your garden. However, you need to care for tamarix according to certain rules, otherwise you can not expect rapid growth from it.
What a flower "tamarix"
Tamariks is a small tree-type shrub from the Tamariks family of the same name. It has thin arcuate branches with reddish-brown bark, it can reach a height of 4 m and more, but most often it grows only up to 1.5 m. In spring, tamarix shoots are covered with racemose inflorescences with flowers of white, pale pink and pale lilac. The leaves of tamarix are lanceolate, bluish-green, the crown is spreading and very light and delicate.
In total, there are more than 70 plant species, but in Russia, planting and caring for the four-stalked tamarix and several other varieties are most often considered.
Winter hardiness of tamarix
In general, the frost resistance of tamariks, or beads, is considered very high. Some species can withstand temperatures as low as -50 ° C, although in this case the plant will need shelter. Any of the plant species can easily tolerate a drop in temperature to - 17-20 ° C, for this reason, the shrub is actively grown even in the northern regions of the country.
How and when tamarix blooms
The specific timing of flowering depends on the type of shrub. But on average, flowering occurs in April or May. A unique feature of tamarix is the ability to bloom up to 3 times per season, the inflorescences on the bush can also bloom in mid-summer and early autumn.
Tamarix inflorescences are long, up to 15 cm in each cluster, and they consist of small flowers of a white or pale pink hue. The buds that have not fully blossomed slightly resemble large beads, hence the second name of tamarix. Blooming beads are a bit like lilacs, but their crown is more delicate and spreading, and the clusters of inflorescences are thinner and longer.
How fast is tamarix growing
Bisernik belongs to shrubs with very fast growth, not least of all this is due to its popularity in landscape design. For a year, tamarix can give an increase of up to 1 m. The roots of the shrub also grow very quickly, they can reach a meter in length even when the height of the plant itself does not exceed a few centimeters.
Advice! Photos of growing and caring for tamarix indicate that it is very convenient to use it in artistic compositions. You do not have to wait for the result for a long time, tamarix very quickly acquires the required dimensions and enters into full decorativeness.
The healing properties of the tamarisk bush
The shrub has not only decorative but also medicinal properties. Its leaves, bark and flowers contain valuable substances - tannins, tannins, polyphenols and vitamins.
Thanks to this, tamarix is used for the preparation of decoctions, infusions and tinctures on alcohol. Medicines:
- have a diuretic effect;
- help to lower the temperature;
- astringent and helps with diarrhea and nausea;
- allow you to quickly stop the blood and have an analgesic effect;
- relieve inflammation and pain in rheumatic ailments.
It is customary to harvest the healing raw materials of tamarix at the beginning of summer, at a time when the leaves and shoots of the plant contain the maximum amount of valuable substances.
How can tamarix propagate?
A bead in a summer cottage looks so attractive that usually gardeners are not limited to just one shrub. It is possible to increase the population of tamarix by vegetative methods; it is not necessary to buy new seedlings for this.
To propagate tamarisk seeds, it is enough to sow them evenly in a container with prepared soil mixture. It is not required to deepen the seeds or sprinkle them with earth from above. The container is placed on a tray filled with water, and then the first shoots appear, usually it takes only a few days for germination.
When the sprouts get stronger and reach a height of about 10-15 cm, they can be transferred to a temporary bed, and after 2 years they can be planted in a permanent place.
Important! The seed propagation method for tamarix is rarely used, since in the middle lane the seeds of a plant rarely ripen at all, and the timing of their germination in any case does not exceed a couple of months.
A simple and reliable way to propagate beads on the site is to use layers of an adult plant. On the mother bush, they choose one of the healthy branches located close to the ground, bend it down and dig it into the soil to a depth of about 20 cm.
The cuttings are fixed with a wire or a staple, and then watered during the warm season in the same way as the main plant. By the fall, the cuttings will give strong long roots, and then it can be separated and transplanted.
How to propagate tamarix by cuttings
Reproduction of tamarix by cuttings in spring is the most popular and reliable way to increase the plant population. As blanks from an adult mother bush, at the very beginning of spring, several half-lignified shoots about 10 cm long are cut, and the lower cut is made oblique.
- The cuttings are treated with a root-forming solution along the lower cut and kept in water for a day.
- A sufficiently deep container is filled with a light but nutritious mixture of fertile soil and sand mixed in equal amounts. You can also add peat to the soil mixture, which will accelerate the development of shoots.
- After a day, the cutting is buried in the soil, watered abundantly and the container is covered on top with a glass dome or transparent film.
The container with cuttings is placed in a warm and well-lit place. It will be possible to understand that the sprouts have taken root safely by the appearance of young leaves on the cuttings. It will be possible to transplant the cuttings into the ground already in May, first to a temporary bed, and a year later to a permanent place. With the help of cuttings, tamarix reproduces very well, problems usually do not arise, so even novice gardeners can cope with the task.
Attention! Another way of rooting cuttings is to simply put them in water and wait for strong roots to appear. The method gives good results, but in this case it is better to take not half-lignified, but also green young shoots.
Planting and caring for a tamarix shrub
Tamarix needs attention and care for its healthy development. Although the plant is considered to be quite hardy, it is still very sensitive to light, moisture, and nutrient availability.
Basically, tamarix breeding, planting and care is carried out in early spring - in April or even in March. It is necessary to wait until a confident positive temperature is established, and after that the shrub can be planted in the ground in the open air.
Planting seedlings in autumn during the deciduous period is also permissible. However, 2-3 weeks should remain before the onset of cold weather, otherwise the young plant simply will not have time to take root in a new place.
Where to plant tamarix
From the point of view of soil, tamarix is quite unpretentious in choosing a site. It grows equally well both on light sandy loam soils and on heavy clay and loam. The main condition is that humus and peat must be added to the soil in advance in order to provide the plant with nutrients.
But beads are very sensitive to the amount of light. In the photo of planting and caring for the tamarix shrub, it can be seen that it must be planted in the sun, in the shade the plant refuses to develop and withers. Even light but constant shading from nearby trees and tall shrubs can negatively affect the health of the beads.
It is important to note that the site for tamarix must be chosen very carefully - taking into account the fact that the shrub will grow in the chosen place constantly. The roots of the shrub are long, but thin and fragile, so tamarix perceives transplants negatively, it is better not to carry them out unless absolutely necessary.
How to plant tamarix
For planting beads in the ground, prepare a spacious planting hole at least 60 cm in depth and width.
- At the bottom of the pit, rubble, pebbles or broken brick are poured, which will act as drainage, the layer thickness should be at least 20 cm.
- On top of the drainage system, humus mixed with wood ash is laid to half the depth of the hole.
- A 2/3 hole is covered with a soil mixture of fertile soil, sand and peat in a ratio of 2: 1: 1.
- A seedling of beads is lowered into the hole and its roots are carefully straightened, and then the hole is covered with earth to the end.
In this case, the root collar of the plant should be flush with the ground. Immediately after planting, the beads are abundantly watered and mulch the near-trunk area with wood chips or other material.
Important! For quick rooting and healthy growth, it is recommended to trim the side shoots of the beads before planting, they are trimmed so that they do not exceed 5 cm in length.
How to care for tamarix
Planting becomes only the first stage of tamarix breeding and growing. In order for the shrub to please with a beautiful flowering, it is necessary to carry out competent cultivation and care of the tamarix plant after it.
Watering and feeding schedule
Tamarix is a plant that is quite sensitive to the amount of moisture. The first days after planting in the open air, the seedling must be watered generously - but then the watering is sharply reduced. A bead plant that has successfully taken root in a permanent place should receive moisture due to natural precipitation, additional watering is carried out only during flowering and during a period of severe summer drought. The plant does not tolerate waterlogging of the soil and, in marshy conditions, begins to suffer from root rot and fungi.
As for the dressing, in the first year the tamarix has enough fertilizers applied to the soil before planting. For the next year and further, every year, the beads must be supplied with organic fertilizers in early spring and potassium and phosphorus must be added to the soil during flowering.
How to prune tamarix in spring and fall
Tamarix grows very quickly, so you need to prune it every year - not only in the spring, but also in the fall.
- In the spring, pruning is carried out even before the buds begin to swell, so as not to damage the plant. It is necessary to remove first of all all weak and damaged branches. You should also cut off old shoots with small increments - the branches are shortened "by a ring", and just a month later, the beads give young, fast-growing shoots.
- Tamarix pruning in the fall is carried out mainly for sanitary purposes. During it, you can also remove wilted inflorescences and thin out the crown - excessive thickening of the branches impairs the access of light and oxygen.
From time to time, beads are recommended to be rejuvenated. This is usually done at the beginning of autumn - the shrub is cut almost under the stump, to a strong healthy branch, located close to the base of the bush. Radical pruning stimulates the growth of new shoots, and next year the beads again pleases the eye with a lush openwork crown and abundant flowering.
How to prepare beads for winter
Different types of tamarix show different resistance to cold. Some plants can easily tolerate extremely low temperatures, others freeze to the level of snow cover. Therefore, it is recommended to cover the beads for the winter in any case.
To protect against cold weather, it is necessary to mulch the soil at the roots of the plant with a dense layer of insulating material. You can also bend and tie the shoots together, fix them in a bent state, and then cover them with spruce branches or a special non-woven material.
Why tamarix does not bloom and what to do
On the site, tamarix is planted precisely for the sake of a beautiful abundant flowering, but sometimes the shrub does not give flowers at all. The flowering of beads and their care are closely related, so usually the life cycle of the plant is disrupted due to errors in cultivation.
- Tamarix grows in the shade. With this arrangement, the shrub can not only stop flowering, but even die altogether, it needs sunlight.
- The bead shoots froze over during the winter - flowers appear on the branches of the last year, and if the latter did not endure the winter well, then flowering can not be expected.
- Tamarix lacks nutrients, if the soil is too scarce, then the shrub simply does not have enough strength for flowering.
- The root of the plant is excessively thickened - the lack of pruning leads to the fact that the bush receives less air and sunlight, respectively, its ability to bloom is reduced.
To restore the health of the shrub, it is necessary to correct the mistakes made during cultivation - to adjust the lighting and soil moisture in the area with tamarix, feed the plant, cut off excess branches. With the onset of cold weather, it is necessary to provide frost protection for young shoots.
Pests and diseases
The ornamental shrub is highly resistant to diseases and pests. Beads are affected by insects only if the infection spreads from neighboring plants. For prevention and treatment, any standard insecticidal solution is suitable - Karbofos, Actellik.
Tamarix can suffer from fungal diseases only if it grows in the shade and on waterlogged soil. To treat rot and any other ailments, you need to remove all affected shoots and treat the shrub with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate. After that, it is better to transplant tamarix from the problem area in the sun, otherwise the diseases may return again.
Planting and caring for tamarix outdoors requires careful control of the level of lighting and moisture in the soil. If you do not violate the most basic rules for growing a shrub, tamarix will annually delight you with lush and beautiful inflorescences on long branches.