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Pulmonary gentian: photo and description


In biological reference books, the pulmonary gentian is entered under the Latin name Gentiana pulmonanthe. The culture is known as common gentian or pulmonary falconer. It received its specific name because of the bitter roots with a high content of amaropanin glycoside - an active substance with medicinal properties.

Description of pulmonary gentian

A gentian of this species is a polycarpous plant, flowering and fruiting for many years with a short rhizome, branched structure of the underground part. Perennial herbaceous culture grows singly or in small groups, forms erect stems.

External description of the pulmonary gentian (Gentiana pulmonanthe), the following:

  1. Plant height - 20-35 cm.
  2. Stems are solitary or slightly branched in the upper part, dark brown, tough, with a shallow dense margin.
  3. The main shoot and lateral branches end in single flowers.
  4. Leaves are narrow, linear, growing all over the stem, up to 6 cm long, bright green with one central vein.
  5. The flowers of the pulmonary gentian are formed on short peduncles located in the leaf axils of the upper part. They are bell-shaped, toothed calyx with curved sharp edges. The petals are deeply dissected, dark blue.
  6. Anthers and stamens are fused, beige-yellow in color, the fruits are in the shape of a box.

Important! A distinctive feature of the species is that on the inner side of the petals there are several green intermittent stripes and a white or pale brown dotted blotch.

At night and in cloudy weather, the flowers of the pulmonary gentian are collected in buds that open with sufficient lighting

Distribution area

The pulmonary gentian is a representative of the European-Siberian range. The main accumulation is noted in the basins of the Kama, Don, Volga, in Western and Eastern Siberia. Much less often, the pulmonary gentian can be found in the North Caucasus, in the Middle Belt and Central regions.

It grows in small groups or singly in forest glades, along the banks of water bodies, in flooded meadows. A prerequisite is moist fertile soils. It is rare, the pulmonary gentian is classified as an endangered species, the plant is listed in the Red Book of a number of areas:

  • Lipetsk;
  • Penza;
  • Tambovskaya;
  • Saratov;
  • Rostov;
  • Kursk;
  • Volgograd;
  • Belgorod.

In places of accumulation, the population is represented by old plants, there are very few young ones, this factor reduces the number of pulmonary gentian and leads to its disappearance. Poor reproduction is due to the low competitiveness of the plant; it is replaced by crops adapted to dry soil conditions. Also, the reduction is influenced by the territorial fragmentation of the species and anthropogenic reasons: plowing of land, early haymaking, when the plant has not yet entered the fruiting phase, logging, collection of raw materials for medicinal purposes.

Breeding features

In its natural environment, the lung gentian reproduces by self-seeding and root shoots. The second method is extremely rare; for vegetative propagation, a moist environment and nutritious soil are needed. The root system grows and forms new stems, forming a small compact bush, but the plant itself does not give more than 3-4 shoots from one root.

At home, you can grow pulmonary gentian from seeds by sowing them in the ground before winter or planting them on seedlings

The material is obtained in a standard way. An adult plant on the site can be propagated by dividing the root so that each fragment has a healthy bud and root filaments.

Important! The pulmonary gentian is suitable for grafting, the material is taken from the middle of the stem.

This method is not effective, the rooting of cuttings is very weak, but possible.

The composition and value of the plant

The healing properties of pulmonary gentian are recognized not only by traditional medicine, but also by traditional medicine. The chemical composition is rich in micro- and macroelements that are involved in almost all functions of the human body. Useful components are contained in the root system and the aerial mass of the pulmonary gentian. Active substances in the plant:

  • essential oils;
  • tanning polyphenols;
  • glycosides (main concentration in the root): svertsiamarin, gentiopicrin, amarogenin, amaropanin;
  • alkaloid gentianine;
  • sugar - gentianosis, gentiobriosis;
  • ascorbic and phenolcarboxylic (ferulic) acids;
  • inulin.

The plant has an antispasmodic effect, normalizes gastric secretion, improves energy balance, acts as a prebiotic. Pulmonary gentian is used as a sedative, expectorant, antipyretic and anticonvulsant. The herb has a choleretic property, promotes better blood clotting in case of cuts.

Healing properties

The pulmonary gentian, especially its root part, is used to treat a number of pathologies:

  • respiratory viral infections;
  • bronchitis;
  • sore throats;
  • hemeralopia (decrease in the quality of vision at twilight time);
  • renal and heart failure;
  • stomach ulcers, gastritis;
  • burns, purulent wounds;
  • gout;
  • anemia;
  • hepatitis A;
  • with pulmonary diseases of various etiologies.

Diseases associated with the gastrointestinal tract are more often treated. Infusions and decoctions help to normalize the digestive system, relieve constipation, flatulence. They normalize the acid index in gastric secretions. Taking remedies based on pulmonary gentian helps to maintain normal blood pressure.

The root of the herb is harvested at the end of the growing season, approximately in October

Application in traditional medicine

In alternative medicine recipes, all parts of the plant are used for external and internal use. On the basis of pulmonary gentian, decoctions, infusions are prepared, or an alcoholic tincture is made for topical use.

Raw materials are procured in three stages. Before the budding phase, the leaves of pulmonary gentian are collected, during flowering, flowers and stems are harvested. In the fall, they dig the root. They are also prepared in several ways. You can collect the stems with flowers in bunches and hang them in a well-ventilated area, protecting them from the sun. After collecting, separate the stems from the flowers, and cut them into pieces together with the leaves to dry. The root is well washed, cut and dried.

Recipes and rules of admission

For better digestion, getting rid of high acidity and eliminating constipation, make a decoction of 20 g of chopped grass mixed with 15 g of powdered root. The gentian is poured into a thermos with 1.5 liters of water and left until the liquid cools completely. I drink 50 g before meals. The course lasts 5 days.

An infusion of 7 tbsp helps against pulmonary and colds. l. chopped root and 5 tbsp. aboveground part, filled with 1 liter of boiling water. The agent is insisted for 6 hours, then boiled, filtered and placed in the refrigerator. Take 70 g before meals.

With low blood pressure, anemia, malaria, an alcoholic infusion is made. A 1/3 liter bottle of 0.5 liters is filled with the root of the pulmonary gentian and topped up with vodka or alcohol. Insist in a dark room for 1.5 months. Then they filter and drink 40 drops in 4 doses per day.

Limitations and contraindications

It is not recommended to take a remedy based on pulmonary gentian for pregnant women. The chemical composition of the plant increases the muscle tone of the uterus, therefore, earlier decoctions were used to stimulate labor. It is necessary to refrain from treatment with pulmonary gentian if an intestinal disorder occurs with symptoms of diarrhea, since the herb has a laxative effect. You can not use tinctures for people with individual intolerance and women during lactation.

Conclusion

The pulmonary gentian is a perennial medicinal plant with a rich chemical composition. Grows singly or in small groups on moist soil, rarely found. The plant is classified as an endangered species; in a number of regions of Russia, the pulmonary gentian is listed in the Red Book.


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