Summer apples are good because they ripen very quickly - without waiting for autumn, you can enjoy the taste and aroma of fresh fruits. Winter varieties of apples have their own fundamental differences, the main one of which is that it is recommended to eat the fruits a few weeks after the harvest. It is winter apples that are intended for long-term storage, long-distance transportation, processing, drying and fresh sale. Late-ripening varieties have many advantages, but there are also some features that you need to know about at the stage of planting seedlings.
The very best winter apple varieties will be listed in this article. Photos with names will also be presented here, brief characteristics of each late variety are given: the classification will help to determine the specific type of apple tree.
General characteristics of late species
Winter apples, unlike summer ones, are not usually eaten directly from the tree - these fruits must lie down for some time to acquire sweetness and aroma. A couple of weeks is enough for some types of late-ripening apples, while others become tasty only months later. This fact must be taken into account by the gardener, because he will have to equip the storage for the winter harvest and wait for the biological ripening of the fruit.
Attention! In order for the crop to be stored for a long time, the gardener must understand well when to remove winter apples for storage. This is usually done at the end of September or in the first half of October, when there is still no strong frost.
During the harvesting period, the fruits should be at the stage of technical maturity, and their taste, aroma and color will appear a little later - already during storage. The warmer it is in the storage, the sooner the apples will ripen: the starch will turn into sugar, and the acids will evaporate during the "respiration" of the fruit.
Important! The fact that the fruit is ready for consumption will be indicated by the strong aroma of apples, which will fill the storage. The rate of fruit ripening depends not only on storage conditions, but also on the variety.
Another feature of winter varieties is their winter hardiness: as a rule, such trees tolerate even frosty winters well, are not afraid of recurrent spring frosts (the flowering period occurs in the early summer).
Pros of late fruits
Delicious winter apples, stored until spring, and sometimes until next summer, have many more advantages. It is worth getting at least one late apple tree in your garden for several reasons:
- fruits have a very good keeping quality - some varieties can be stored for up to eight months;
- the crop can be transported to any distance;
- apples ripen perfectly when plucked, so you don't have to wait for winter to harvest;
- the consistency of the pulp in winter varieties is dense, and the peel of apples is thick and strong (fruits do not lose their presentation for a long time, do not crumple or rot);
- late harvest is suitable both for fresh consumption and for any type of processing;
- trees have good winter hardiness, their flowers do not crumble after spring frosts.
Advice! When purchasing a winter variety seedling, the gardener should think about storage for the future apple harvest.
The only drawback of late-ripening varieties is that it will not work to eat the fruits immediately after picking - apples need to lie down for a while to become sweet and aromatic.
Classification of late maturing species
Among the varieties of winter apples, there are those that produce green fruits, red or yellow, there are striped fruits or colored with a bright blush. In private gardens and farms of the country, you can find old, time-tested varieties or the latest hybrids. The developments of domestic breeders, adapted to local climatic conditions and foreign novelties, are popular, striking with high yields and extreme durability.
In this regard, there are several classifications of apple species with late ripening periods. Most often, these varieties are divided into three groups depending on the maximum storage duration of the crop, so they are distinguished:
- early winter;
- late winter apple trees.
In each of these groups there are dozens of worthy varieties perfectly adapted to the climate of any part of Russia. The best and most popular types of winter apple trees will be described in more detail.
Early winter species
It is customary to include apple trees in this group, the fruits of which have the shortest shelf life - in well-equipped and ventilated cellars, the harvest lies until January-February.
Important! Early winter apple trees are not in great demand among gardeners, since there is a worthy alternative in the form of autumn varieties with the same shelf life: the crop can be harvested earlier, and its keeping quality will be just as long.
Green varieties in the winter group are rather rare, because most late-ripening apples are red in color. One of the oldest domestic species - Antonovka - to this day does not lose its relevance.
The tree is well adapted to temperate climates, withstands high humidity, perfectly tolerates frost, and is immune to scab. The seedlings usually enter the fruiting phase after ten years of age. Antonovka yields a harvest every year, the number of apples is large - up to 500 kg per tree.
The trees of the winter Antonovka are tall, with a powerful crown. Medium sized apples - 150-200 grams. The shape of the fruit is oval-conical, the peel is colored greenish-yellow (at the stage of technical maturity, the color of apples is deep green). The fruit tastes good, wine-sweet. It is recommended to eat Antonovka fruits not earlier than the end of October, and they can be stored until February.
Advice! To extend the shelf life of Antonovka, you can put the fruits in straw and regularly ventilate the basement.
These are apples of American origin, beautiful in appearance and very tasty. They are distinguished from other winter species by their unusually crispy flesh. The apples have a sweet and sour taste.
The fruits are large, cone-shaped, and deep crimson. Dots that resemble strawberry grains protrude on the peel. The average fruit weight is 220 grams, some apples can weigh more than 350 grams.
The trees grow to medium size, are resistant to scab, and have a good immunity to powdery mildew. The yield and winter hardiness of the Honey Crisp variety are also at the level. The early winter harvest should be stored in the refrigerator, then the apples will last until the last days of February.
According to reviews, winter varieties of apple trees are the most popular in Russia - this group includes hundreds of domestic and foreign hybrids. It is customary to call winter apple trees, the harvest from which can be stored until March-April. This means storing fruit in conventional cellars with good ventilation, while in refrigerators with a gas chamber, for example, apples will be stored even longer.
The apple tree was bred by folk breeders from the Volga region, the variety showed itself best on non-chernozem soils. Anise can withstand frosts down to -45 degrees, so it is suitable for almost all regions of the country.
The apple tree bears fruit from 5-7 years after planting, has immunity to scab, tolerates drought well, and is undemanding to the composition of the soil. Anise's yield is high - about 300 kg per tree.
The trees are powerful, have a spherical crown. The fruits are small, weighing on average about 65 grams. The peel of apples is greenish with a pink or red blurred blush. The pulp is firm, sweet and sour, juicy and crunchy. You can store the crop until spring, if the basement is ventilated and the fruits are treated with a special remedy for "pepper".
American hybrid, which has not taken root well in Russia due to its low winter hardiness. Cortland is suitable for the southern regions, where it gives average yields, is immune to scab, and tolerates drought normally.
Fruiting begins 5-6 years after planting. The fruits are round, slightly flattened. The average weight of apples is 100-120 grams. The peel is painted in a yellowish-green hue, there are dark red stains on the surface of the fruit, and a waxy coating is also visible.
Cortland's pulp is snow-white, fine-grained, juicy, with a delicate pleasant aroma. The harvest can be stored in the refrigerator until May - the apples remain just as tasty and beautiful.
A very popular American variety in Russia. Welsey pleases with a very good immunity to scab, average winter hardiness - the tree will withstand a temperature drop to -25 degrees even without shelter.
The winter apple tree enters the fruiting phase early - in the third or fourth year after planting. The crop gives every year, but after that it needs careful pruning. The trees grow quite tall and have conical crowns. The shape of the apples is regular, flat-round. Fruit size is medium and above average - about 130 grams.
The peel of apples is dense, colored yellow, has a crimson blush. The pulp with a greenish tint, juicy, crispy, sweet and sour, aromatic. You can eat sweet winter Wellsey apples a month after harvesting, they are perfectly transported, and can be stored until the end of March.
Attention! Young apple trees of the winter variety Welsey tolerate severe frosts better, but it is advisable to cover more mature trees for the winter.
Late winter species
If you are already planting winter apple trees in the garden, then choose the latest varieties, the fruits of which can be stored until next summer. It is customary to call apple trees late winter, the harvest from which is harvested in the same way - at the end of September or in the first half of October, but apples of these species can be stored until next summer (May-June).
An excellent domestic late winter variety with excellent winter hardiness, high productivity, scab resistance, early fruiting.
Medium-sized trees with a dense crown. The apples are very large, the average fruit weight is 220 grams. The shape is correct, round-conical, there are no ribs on the fruits. During the harvest, the apples are green, then turn yellowish, may have red streaks on the surface.
The pulp is creamy, sweet and sour, with a pronounced spicy aroma. The consumer maturity of the Moskovskoe Zimnee variety begins at the end of November. The harvest is stored until the end of spring.
A good winter-hardy late apple variety that gives high yields. The tree begins to bear fruit 5-6 years after planting, yields yields every year. The disadvantage of this winter variety is the instability to scab - you will have to treat the apple tree with special preparations several times over the summer.
The apples are very large - up to 350 grams, their shape is round-conical. The rind is greenish-yellow with a rich crimson blush over the entire surface. The pulp is greenish, very tasty, juicy, aromatic. The crop is stored for a long time, it tolerates transportation well.
A winter columnar apple tree is not such a rarity. These trees are loved for their compact size and amazing yield: in a small area, a summer resident can grow several apple trees with different ripening periods.
Late variety with very good yields. Apple trees are dwarf (up to 180 cm), have a compact crown. Trees tolerate low temperatures well, are not afraid of scab, and do not need special care.
Currency fruits are round, have a yellow peel, with a rich blush over the entire surface. Average weight - about 100 grams. The taste of apples is sweet and sour, the aroma is strongly pronounced, the pulp is juicy.
The currency enters fruiting within 1-2 years after planting. Harvesting should be in October, and you can store it for 3-4 months.
It is difficult to imagine an orchard without winter apple trees. It is these late-ripening trees that produce fruits that can be stored for several months. These winter apples are sold in shops and markets, they make delicious jams and aromatic marmalades. There are many varieties of late apple trees, the most popular of which are presented in this article.
More information about winter varieties of apple trees and the rules for growing them is described in this video: