Onions are one of the most demanded vegetables in the kitchen of every housewife. In order to always have it at hand, gardeners grow a vegetable on their land plots. The culture is unpretentious and, with proper care, allows you to get a rich harvest for harvesting for the whole winter. Traditionally, onions are sown in spring, but more and more often you can find winter crops of it. For sowing for the winter, it is necessary to use special varieties and hybrids of onions that tolerate wintering well. It is not difficult to grow a vegetable in this way, but for this you need to know how to feed winter onions in the spring in order to get a good harvest.
Benefits of winter onions
winter onions sown in autumn have a number of advantages over spring sowing:
- sowing onions before winter allows you to get a harvest of vegetables much earlier than with spring sowing;
- a winter vegetable immediately after the snow melts in early spring gives a feather that can be used for food;
- onions sown in the fall are gaining enough strength by spring to resist the onion fly;
- winter crops are well adapted to unfavorable weather conditions;
- among winter varieties, you can choose high-yielding ones, which bear fruit in the amount of 4-5 kg / m2.
Thanks to the described advantages, an increasing number of gardeners are growing onions by sowing for the winter. For this, they choose such well-known varieties as "Shakespeare", "Radar", "Ella". These varieties of winter crops are cold-resistant, perfectly tolerate frosts down to -150Even in the absence of snow cover. Under the thickness of the snow, the freezing threshold is very high, which makes the vegetable invulnerable to low temperatures.
Soil preparation in autumn
Winter onions are sown in the soil in the second half of October. This seeding regime will allow the bulbs to take root before frost, but will prevent the green feathers from germinating.
Before sowing a crop, it is necessary to disinfect and fertilize the soil:
- Copper sulfate is used to disinfect the soil. 15 mg of this substance is diluted in a bucket of water and used to irrigate 5 m2 soil.
- A day after disinfecting the soil, you can start applying fertilizers. More often organic matter is used for these purposes, for example, rotted cow dung. Fertilizer consumption should be 5 kg / m2 soil. In combination with manure, you can use fertilizers containing phosphorus (superphosphate), which will help the bulbs to take root quickly.
Important! In the fall, before sowing winter onions, fertilizers with a high nitrogen content cannot be used, since this provokes an accelerated growth of feathers, and the germinated vegetable cannot successfully overwinter.
If you plan to grow a vegetable on heavy clay soils, then in the fall, before sowing winter onions, you need to add sand and peat to the soil in addition to organic and phosphate fertilizers.
Thus, the first feeding of winter onions should be carried out in the fall, before sowing the crop. In the next year, during the active growth of the bulbs, it is necessary to carry out another 3-4 feeding.
Some gardeners in the fall, after sowing onions in prepared soil, mulch the beds with peat. With the arrival of spring heat, it will quickly melt and will not retard onion growth.
Spring feeding with minerals
As soon as winter onions begin to release their feathers in spring, it is worth considering fertilizing. At this time, the culture most of all needs nitrogenous fertilizing. You can use special mineral complexes as fertilizers. You can also prepare the necessary top dressing yourself by mixing 3 parts of superphosphate, 2 parts of urea (carbamide) and 1 part of potassium chloride. For onion fertilization in spring 1 part of fertilizer for 1 m2 soil should be equal to 5 mg of the substance. Having mixed all the components together, they should be dissolved in water and used for watering vegetables.
2-3 weeks after the first feeding of the onions was carried out, it is necessary to reintroduce useful microelements into the soil. The second spring feeding can be done using nitrophoska. Two tablespoons of this substance must be added to a bucket of water and, after thorough mixing, use a 2 m watering solution2 soil.
The third time you need to feed the plants at a time when the diameter of the bulb is approximately 3-3.5 cm.During this period, the vegetable requires phosphorus for accelerated growth. You can get it by using superphosphate. Two tablespoons of this substance is enough to feed 1 m onion2 soil. This amount of substance must be dissolved in 10 liters of water.
Ready-made complex mineral fertilizers for feeding winter onions can be purchased in specialized stores. For example, for the first feeding in spring, you can use the Vegeta fertilizer. The second feeding of onions in 2-3 weeks is recommended to be carried out with the use of Agricola-2 fertilizer. "Effecton-O" can be used during the third onion feeding.
All of the listed minerals are chemicals, so some gardeners are very skeptical about their use. The advantages of such substances are the availability and ease of use.
Organic for onions
When there is manure and grass in the yard, it is not at all necessary to resort to the use of chemicals. In this case, you can use an option based on environmentally friendly feeding:
- For the first spring feeding, you can use slurry (1 glass per bucket of water).
- It is recommended to use the herbal infusion for the second feeding. To do this, you need to grind the grass in advance and fill it with water (5 kg per 10 liters). After insisting for several days, the liquid is filtered and diluted with clean water in a ratio of 1:10.
- The third feeding of the vegetable can be done using wood ash. It is diluted in an amount of 250 grams in a bucket of hot water and the resulting solution is infused for several days. After a certain time, the ash solution is diluted with pure water and used for watering winter onions.
Thus, in spring and summer, organic matter can become a worthy substitute for mineral chemical fertilizers. Another option for using organics for feeding onions can be seen in the video:
Important! All organic fertilizers must be applied under the root of winter onions. The next day after feeding the beds, it is necessary to water abundantly.
In addition to the usual mineral fertilizers and organic matter, you can feed winter onions with ammonia or yeast. Such dressings are unconventional, but due to their effectiveness, they are in increasing demand among gardeners.
Feeding with yeast
Baker's yeast is a unique product that has a beneficial effect on the growth and development of plants. It is used to feed indoor flowers, various vegetable crops, including onions.
When dissolved in warm water, the yeast begins to ferment. As a result of this process, vitamin B1, meso-inositol, biotin are released. In addition, the yeast itself contains a large amount of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals. All of these substances stimulate root formation and plant growth. When it enters the soil, the yeast activates the life processes of beneficial bacteria, resulting in the release of gases and heat. It also allows the bulbs to breathe and grow faster.
The fermentation process of yeast occurs only in the presence of an elevated temperature, which is why the first feeding in early spring is not recommended in this way. It is better to use yeast in the summer, resorting to one of the recipes:
- Granular yeast (dry) should be added to warm water in a ratio of 10 grams per 10 liters of liquid. For accelerated fermentation, 2 tablespoons of sugar or jam are added to the solution, after which it is insisted for several hours. The finished mixture is diluted in 50 liters of pure water and used for feeding onions.
- Fresh baker's yeast is added to warm water in a ratio of 1 kg per 10 liters. At the stage of active fermentation, another 50 liters of clean warm water are added to the solution.
Once made with yeast, black bread can be an excellent onion fertilizer. Many gardeners collect leftovers and crusts of bread especially in winter. To prepare top dressing, you need to soak it in warm water. The volume of liquid should completely cover the bread. Fertilizer must be fermented, leaving it under oppression in a warm place for a week. After fermentation, the top dressing must be mixed into porridge, diluted with water and added to the ground.
Important! All yeast supplements stimulate the absorption of calcium by the plants. To restore the balance of this trace element, wood ash should be added to yeast infusions.
The process of preparing a yeast fertilizer for plant fertilization is shown in the video:
Ammonia is a tincture of ammonia that contains large amounts of nitrogen. It is used to feed indoor and outdoor plants.
Important! Ammonium dressing for winter onions increases the growth of green feathers.
Depending on the purpose of feeding, ammonia is used in the following proportions:
- for the accelerated growth of green feathers, the onion is watered with a solution prepared in a ratio of 1 teaspoon to 1 liter of water;
- for uniform growth of feathers and turnips, watering the onion with a weak solution of ammonia should be carried out - 1 large falsely per 10 liters of water.
It is recommended to water the onion with a solution of ammonia once a week. At the same time, the substance will fertilize the onion and protect it from pests, in particular, from onion flies. An example of how ammonia can save onions is shown in the video:
Ammonia can be used to feed onions when symptoms of nitrogen deficiency appear: lethargy and yellowing of the feather. In this case, the amount of ammonia can be increased by diluting 3 tablespoons of the substance in a bucket of water. Water the plants with ammonia should be in the evening, after sunset.
You can use unconventional dressing in combination with the introduction of mineral or organic fertilizers. In this case, the amount of nitrogen should not be higher than the permissible value.
Growing winter onions, you can get an early harvest of vegetables, which exceeds the yield of spring sowing in quantity. To do this, it is necessary to prepare a nutritious soil in the fall and sow onions no earlier than mid-October. With the arrival of spring, winter onions need intensive feeding, which can be done with the use of mineral, organic or non-traditional fertilizers. The above are the most affordable recipes for their preparation, which even a novice farmer can use.