Climbing roses are an indispensable component of decorative landscaping, enlivening any composition with beautiful bright flowers. They require competent care, in which pruning and covering of a climbing rose in the fall play an important role.
Climbing roses are called roses that have long shoots, according to the nature and length of which they are divided into different groups.
Types of climbing roses
Curly - the longest, they have flexible green shoots that spread up to 15 meters. They are the real roses. Small double flowers are collected in inflorescences covering the entire length of the shoot. This species was named Rambler. Most of its varieties are winter hardiness. A light dry shelter is enough for them. Climbing roses bloom profusely in June-July.
By crossing with other varieties, climbing roses were bred from climbing, which was named Climber. They bloom profusely in the form of inflorescences, collected from large flowers. Some varieties also give repeated flowering. Plants are hardy and resistant to powdery mildew.
The third species came from bush roses as a result of mutations. They are named Climbing. The varieties are distinguished by larger flowers - up to 11 cm in diameter and are mainly adapted to mild climatic conditions.
Different types of climbing roses require different pruning methods, depending on the characteristics of the species. Correct pruning accomplishes the following tasks:
- getting rid of old shoots, the plant rejuvenates;
- removal of excess shoots contributes to the thinning of the bush and provides uniform lighting and air access;
- when pruning, the decorative formation of the bush occurs;
- the rose gives a more lush flowering, the root system is strengthened and develops more intensively;
- a higher concentration of nutrients occurs;
- the plant's resistance to diseases increases;
- too large bushes are difficult to cover for the winter;
- pruning provides quality breeding material for bushes.
Important! During autumn pruning, the correct direction of the lashes is ensured.
If the roses are not cut, they will start to hurt and bloom less, and over time they may die. Novice gardeners who do not yet know how to properly prune a rose can use a simplified pruning form:
- reduce the height of the bush by half;
- remove all old or dead shoots by cutting them off at the very base.
In order to identify an old shoot, you need to carefully examine the bush. Old branches are much thicker than others, the bark on them is distinguished by excessive dryness. They are also distinguished by a large number of lateral shoots, which are less well supplied with food due to the significant lignification of the main stem. Pruning old branches helps the bush to renew itself.
Required inventory for pruning
To properly trim, you need to prepare a quality tool:
- pruning shears, garden knife or saw must be well honed, otherwise they will not be able to provide smooth cuts;
- a blunt tool will leave loose cuts, which will become a source of infection for the bush;
- before trimming, the tool must be disinfected;
- work should be done in tight work gloves that protect from thorns;
- it is better to use a garden rake to collect old branches.
Sections must be treated with a disinfectant. You can use for this:
- garden pitch;
- potassium permanganate or copper sulfate;
- crushed activated carbon or wood ash.
When to prune
Autumn pruning of climbing roses can be started only when the air temperature at night is stable at around minus three degrees - for the middle lane this time coincides with the end of October. Pruning earlier can help promote bud development, leading to the death of the shoots in winter. Pruning should not be carried out even in August, since the shoots that have appeared will not have time to woody before frost and will die. The frozen branch will then thaw and become a breeding ground for fungi.
In order to prevent the appearance and subsequent freezing of shoots, preventive measures must be taken from the summer:
- at the end of July, stop feeding climbing roses with nitrogen compounds;
- increase the application of potash and phosphorus fertilizers - the former will help strengthen the root system of the plant and the faster ripening of existing shoots, and phosphorus will provide nutrition for future buds;
- after the last feeding, you need to stop removing flowers - this measure will help prevent the growth of new buds.
Important! So that the bushes have time to prepare for winter, the last feeding is carried out around the middle of September.
General rules for pruning
Pruning climbing roses for the winter should be carried out in dry, sunny weather, adhering to the following recommendations:
- first of all, diseased and damaged shoots are removed; lignified branches must be removed with a hacksaw;
- there should be 4-5 shoots of the current year on the bush, evenly spaced;
- white twigs are also cut off - they will still freeze and become a source of disease;
- it is also necessary to remove the shoots directed inside the rose bush - growing, they will thicken it;
- all old shoots after pruning must be burned immediately;
- pruning should be carried out above the kidney, at a distance of 4-5 mm from it;
- the bud should be on the outside of the shoot;
- the cut should be inclined and run at an angle of 45 degrees - then moisture will not remain on it;
- leaves and dried flowers should also be removed;
- often shoots with small leaves appear from the base of the roots - this wild growth should be cut immediately, otherwise the whole bush will "run wild".
You can get acquainted with the rules of cropping by watching the video.
Differences in pruning by cultivar
The type of pruning depends on the length of the lashes, the number of branches and the height of the bush.
- Long pruning is done in large-flowered climbing roses, in which most of the buds are at the top of the shoots. The third part of all branches is removed. The remaining shoots should have no more than 10 buds. After wintering, bright inflorescences will appear along their entire length.
- Before sheltering roses from the winter cold, medium pruning is most effective. She, quite gentle, and suitable for almost all types of climbing roses. The exception is curly. With medium pruning, up to 7 buds are left on the shoots.
- Short pruning of roses in autumn is rarely carried out, since after it there is a danger of freezing roses. It can be carried out in areas with mild winters and mainly for small-flowered varieties. With short pruning, only up to three buds are left on the shoots.
Ground cover roses in the fall may not be pruned, and in climbing roses, only damaged branches or very old ones are removed.
If pruning of a climbing rose is done incorrectly, it will die in winter. Her bush should only be cut by a third, removing old, last year's branches and broken shoots. This will provide an opportunity for renewal and the appearance of new inflorescences.
Simultaneously with the pruning of climbing roses, it is necessary to carry out their garter, which will direct the lashes in a horizontal or inclined position.
Shelter roses for the winter
It is necessary to cover climbing roses for the winter only after the onset of constant frosts. They calmly tolerate the effects of small frosts and even become more resistant to cold weather, but they will not withstand sudden changes in temperature. If you cover the roses before frost, the buds will begin to sprout and the plant will die. To shelter bushes, you need to choose dry weather:
- the lashes, cleared of leaves and old shoots, are twisted and bent to the ground, placing spruce branches underneath;
- then you should strengthen the whips in the ground with reliable hooks;
- insulate on top with fir branches, wooden boxes or cardboard boxes;
- cover the entire structure with one of the types of modern covering materials.
If the pruning of climbing roses, their shelter and all measures to prepare the bushes for winter are carried out correctly, next summer they will thank them with a lush bright flowering.