Pruning gooseberries correctly in the fall can be tricky for novice gardeners. But she, along with cleaning the bush zone, feeding, digging and watering, is an obligatory stage in preparing the shrub for wintering. Thanks to the implementation of these procedures, you can get a well-developed bush that will productively exist for more than ten years, and give up to 15 kg of berries.
How to care for gooseberries in the fall
Autumn care for gooseberries is just as important as spring and summer. Following simple recommendations will allow the gardener to help the shrub through the winter. Mandatory gooseberry care procedures in the fall:
- Clearing the trunk circle from foliage, branches and debris.
- Removal of weeds from the bust area.
- Digging the soil around the gooseberry.
- Watering and feeding the shrub.
- Autumn pruning of gooseberries.
- Row spacing.
- Mulching the soil.
Attention! Gooseberry is a light-loving plant, it does not tolerate shade and thickening. Therefore, it must be trimmed regularly.
Do I need to prune gooseberries in the fall
You can prune gooseberries in the fall, after harvesting, or in the spring, when the snow melts. Autumn pruning is preferable. It solves such important tasks:
- Shoot growth control. Over the summer, new branches form on the bush and, if they are not controlled, they will actively multiply and make the bush impervious to light, prone to diseases and pests.
- Caring for the yield. New shoots consume a lot of nutrients, which leads to a drop in yield and a decrease in berry size.
- Giving the bush the optimal shape. If you do not cut off the growth, it, lengthening, is laid on the soil and takes root. The shape of the gooseberry is lost, the yield decreases.
- Formation of a full-fledged shrub. A properly formed gooseberry should have young shoots and strong branches of different ages, which will actively bear fruit in the new season. Old, damaged, dry cuttings and weak growth should be removed.
Important! In the fall, proper gooseberry pruning is essential to maintain consistent high yields and produce zero replacement shoots.
In the spring, pruning the plant is necessary to remove branches damaged in the winter. The haircut is performed before the start of the active growing season. Gooseberry buds leave the state of winter dormancy early. The period when you can cut the bush is short. If you do not have time to prune before this time, you can harm the shrub and weaken it.
Types of pruning
After the end of the growing season, the gooseberries must be cut off. Types of this agrotechnical event:
- Pre-planting pruning. It is carried out before the shrub sapling enters the soil. Its goal is to form a young plant correctly. After planting in spring, the bush does not take root well, so it is optimal to plant and prune gooseberries in the fall.
- Anti-aging pruning. It solves the problem of gradual, within 2 - 3 years, replacement of old shoots with new ones and is relevant for plants over 10 years old. Adult branches are cut to the base, and fresh shrubs are formed from young shoots. It is better to carry out the event in the fall.
Attention! To ensure high yields, it is necessary to ensure that there are branches of different ages on the bush: from 1 to 8 years.
- Sanitary pruning. It is carried out in spring or autumn in order to remove damaged and diseased processes. Shoots of European gooseberry varieties can freeze in winter, so they must be cut off in spring.
- Shortening pruning. Too thin the ends of the branches are shortened, because their buds draw off nutrients, so that fruits will not appear on them. Zero shoots growing from the ground are pruned by a quarter of the length. This stimulates the formation of new branches.
Advice! In the fall, the aged branches are cut to the ground. And in the spring, modeling of fruiting shoots is carried out.
When to prune gooseberries in fall
The best time to prune gooseberries is late autumn, when the dormant period begins. It should be borne in mind:
- unnecessary growth is removed after harvesting or foliage falling;
- sanitary pruning is performed before the cold weather;
- shortening pruning cannot be carried out at the beginning of autumn, this provokes the appearance of new shoots, which do not grow stiff until frost and die.
Attention! The bush is cut at the same time: either in the spring or in the fall. In summer, branches cannot be cut.
How to prune gooseberries in the fall: schemes and rules
Pruning and caring for gooseberries in the fall, taking into account the rules of agricultural technology according to proven schemes, will make it possible to correctly form its crown and increase productivity.
Preparation of tools and materials
To trim you need:
- lopper - in order to remove branches with a diameter of up to 5 cm located in the depths of the bush;
- saw - for removing thick branches;
- secateurs - for trimming small shoots on the surface of the crown;
- chalk or paint - to mark the places of the cuts;
- garden var - for covering the cuts;
- insecticide and fungicide solution - for treating branches damaged by insects or diseases;
- a wheelbarrow, a bag - for cleaning cut branches.
Advice! In order not to get scratched, work should be done in clothes with long sleeves, wearing tight gloves with wide cuffs.
Classic gooseberry pruning in the fall
If you cut the berry according to the rules, you can avoid mistakes that will lead to the death of the gooseberry. Modeling the crown in the form of a bush, they use the methods of classical pruning, while removing:
- branches growing inside the crown;
- shoots that compete with each other (leave strong and healthy);
- undergrowth that is withered or blackened;
- low, inclined and rooted shoots;
- diseased and old branches.
Important! You cannot cut off all the branches that seem superfluous. After pruning, at least a third of the initial crown volume should remain on the gooseberry, otherwise the plant will die.
Tips for beginners on the classic fall gooseberry pruning are detailed in the video:
The procedure for classic gooseberry pruning is as follows:
- Examine the bush and identify the shoots to trim.
- To avoid mistakes, apply paint or chalk marks on the branches selected for cutting.
- Use pruning shears, scissors and a saw to trim the plant.
- Treat the cuts with garden pitch.
Attention! You cannot cut off one-year growths on fruiting branches. This will lead to a delay in crown development.
Neglected plants that have not been cut for 1 - 2 years can be reanimated in the fall using a simple technique. Before the start of frost, no more than 1/3 of the oldest branches should be cut off at the base and 5 - 6 strong annuals should be left. By repeating this procedure for 2 to 4 years, it is possible to completely restore the gooseberry.
Pruning gooseberries in autumn, depending on the age of the bush
To create a correct, non-shading, non-thickened, well-ventilated crown, formative pruning is carried out. The table contains recommendations and diagrams on how to properly cut gooseberries in the fall, depending on their age.
Attention! The age of a gooseberry is determined by the condition of the bark. In young plants, it is smooth and green, while in old plants it is rough, dense, dark gray.
Before spring rooting
The tops of all branches are removed, leaving no more than 4 buds on each; eliminate dead shoots to the point where new ones will grow.
All weakened and broken shoots are cut off, on strong ones - the tops are removed up to the 2nd - 3rd buds.
3 - 4 powerful branches are left to form the crown, shortening their tops by 1/3, the remaining processes are removed to ground level.
3rd and 4th year
The bush should have no more than four main branches. Low growing near the ground (zero) shoots are cut to the base. On the remaining shoots, 1/3 of the length is removed.
5th and 6th year
The crown of the plant has formed. Only control of the number of shoots is carried out and a sanitary haircut is performed.
7th and 8th year
They clean the shrub from the shoots that do not bear fruit. These are twisted branches with dark bark over 7 years old.
10th year or more
They carry out a rejuvenating haircut in order to increase yields and stimulate the growth of new shoots. To do this, remove all the shoots from which the bush has grown. The procedure is performed gradually over 2 - 3 years, leaving a little more than half of the crown volume each time. It is impossible to completely remove the ground part of the bush.
In the second or third year, the yield of the gooseberry is low, but it needs to be provided with good care. The period from the fifth to the tenth year after planting is characterized by maximum fruiting, after which the yield decreases. Again, it can be increased by anti-aging pruning.
Advice! The old bush has many zero branches and few promising ones. The amount of harvest after rejuvenating pruning increases slightly. Perhaps the best option is to replace the gooseberry with a new one.
For novice gardeners, information on pruning gooseberries in the fall, shown in the pictures in the form of diagrams, is useful.
Pruning standard gooseberries in the fall
A standard gooseberry is a bush that has been shaped like a tree. Its berries are larger and sweeter. It bears fruit well and fits perfectly into the landscape design of the garden.
One way to give the standard shape is to trim. It is performed in the following sequence:
- After planting, the bush is cut off, leaving one large and thick shoot: this will be the trunk of the trunk.
- A stake, about 1 m high, is driven in next to the gooseberry, a trunk is tied to it.
- In the fall of next year, lateral processes are removed on the plant at the height of the trunk. Leave 4-6 branches. You can form a stem, leaving the trunk 0.6 - 1.1 m or half-stem at a height of less than 0.6 m.
- In the course of each subsequent haircut, for 4 - 5 years, 4 shoots are left on each branch and a round crown is modeled, shortening the branches by about 20 cm. Sick and intertwining branches are removed.
After the crown is formed, the side shoots are cut off annually, and the old or frozen ones are replaced with new ones.
Pruning gooseberries in autumn when grown on a trellis
The main advantage of growing gooseberries on a trellis is easy and convenient harvesting, the bush is evenly lit and bears fruit well, has clean berries. In this way, tall varieties with a good ability to form shoots are grown.
Gooseberry bushes are planted in parallel rows, the distance between which is at least 1.5 m. Then they are tied to a wire fixed to a support. It is pulled at three levels: 0.5; 0.8; 1 m above the ground. On the first tier, 3 - 5 strong branches are fixed from each plant at a distance of 20 - 25 cm from each other, slightly shortening them. The remaining branches are removed. Then the next year they are tied up without cutting to the second tier. The shoots located in the central part are pruned more, and the horizontal ones are less pruned. In autumn, excess shoots and root growth are removed. Next, they are trimmed according to the classical scheme. Older plants are given a rejuvenating haircut.
Autumn care for gooseberries after pruning
For pruning to give results, you need to perform the following restorative procedures:
- Treat all cut sites with garden pitch. Instead, you can use activated carbon or urea solution (7 parts water and 1 part urea).
- Loosen the earth.
- Feed the gooseberry with fertilizers.
- Water the berry.
- Examine the bush for pests. If necessary, it should be treated with a disinfectant solution (for example, gooseberries and the ground around them are sprayed with Bordeaux liquid).
Autumn pruning, due to the loss of a large amount of vegetation, is stressful for gooseberries. Therefore, proper care is essential to restore the bush.
Watering and feeding schedule
The main rule of autumn feeding gooseberries is not to use nitrogen fertilizers. Their introduction activates the growth of the ground part and the swelling of the kidneys. After pruning, potash and phosphorus fertilizers will have a positive effect, which are used according to the scheme:
- 10-15 g of potassium sulfate and 15-20 g of superphosphate are introduced under the young gooseberry bush;
- for plants more than 5 years old - 20 - 25 g of potassium sulfate and 30 - 40 g of superphosphate;
- it is permissible to fertilize with wood ash - up to 300 g per bush.
Advice! Fertilizer labeled "autumn" can be used.
After feeding, before wintering, the area around the shrub is abundantly moistened. This is necessary so that the soil does not freeze deeply. In well-spilled soil, the roots of the gooseberry, absorbing water, will develop. Thanks to this, the plants will not dry out in frost due to the evaporation of moisture from the surface of the branches.
Loosening and mulching of the soil
After pruning the bush, the soil around it should be prepared for winter. To do this, they dig it up and mulch. When loosening, the shovel is placed along the line of root growth, the bayonet is buried into the ground by no more than 5 cm. The clods of earth are turned over, but not broken, and the root system is not exposed. To prevent the roots from freezing, the soil of the trunk circle is covered with mulch (straw, peat, humus).
Attention! Digging serves to prevent pest damage and enhances water-air exchange. Thanks to this activity, oxygen access to the plant roots is improved.
How to prepare gooseberries for the winter
In areas with a temperate climate, special preparation of gooseberries for winter in the fall is not required. But, in order for the shrub to successfully survive the frosts in the northern regions, its root system is mulched. To do this, you can use:
- dry and healthy fallen leaves;
- spruce branches;
- needles or sawdust;
- humus - you do not need to remove it and, after spring loosening, it will serve as a fertilizer;
- nonwoven covering materials (for example, dense agrospan) are used if a frosty winter with little snow is predicted.
Attention! When insulating the gooseberry with a covering material, it must be removed in the spring. Otherwise, the soil under it will warm up strongly and the plant will rot.
Some European varieties require special protection. The branches of the bush are tied, pressed with boards or bricks to the ground, covered with a cloth and sprinkled with soil. The branches of hybrid varieties can be covered with snow.
Pruning gooseberries in the fall for beginners and professionals in the cultivation of this crop is not an easy task, based on the observance of certain rules that depend on its purpose, crop variety and crown shape. Timely implementation of all stages of preparation for winter is a guarantee of health and long-term fruiting of the plant.