What gardeners cherish and cherish in their garden plots, calling strawberries, is in fact a garden large-fruited strawberry.
Real strawberries were eaten by the ancient Greeks and Romans, as they grew in large quantities in European forests. For the first time in culture it was introduced by the Moors in Spain. Since then, it has been grown as a cultivated berry in the gardens of many European countries. Even new varieties of this berry have appeared: musky, nutmeg, with the aroma of cinnamon.
The history of the creation of large-fruited strawberries
Large-fruited strawberries are American in origin. First, they brought to Europe meadow strawberries, the so-called virgin strawberries, which grew in abundance in North America. It happened in the 17th century. The novelty took root, it was grown in European gardens, including the Paris Botanical. After 100 years, strawberries from Chile also got there. Berries, unlike Virginia strawberries, were lighter and had a sweet taste. Pollination took place between these species, the result of which gave rise to the whole variety of modern varieties of garden strawberries.
The difference between true strawberries and garden strawberries
What is the difference between plants that are strawberries, but are called strawberries out of habit in the botanical sense of the word?
- The berries that we grow and call strawberries are most often dioecious, females and males have a wild look. The latter do not produce berries and, due to their aggressiveness, can crowd out females.
- Garden berries can be found in the wild only on the site of an old abandoned berry, since there is no such species in nature. Its wild sister has several species and grows in nature not only in different countries, but also on different continents.
- Both species can grow in nature, but the garden culture quickly runs wild without care, giving small berries.
- The garden version is quite difficult to separate from the stalk, while the wild berry is very easy to do.
- Forest berry loves shady areas, and its garden relative in the shade simply will not yield a harvest.
- The flesh of a true strawberry is white, and the berry itself is not all colored; for garden strawberries, a red or pink color is characteristic, except for the varieties Mitse Schindler and Peiberri with white berries and red seeds.
- The flower stalks of true strawberries are very strong and are located above the leaves, garden strawberries rarely boast such dignity, the flower stalks fall on the ground under the weight of the berries.
True strawberries are represented by photographs:
From a botanical point of view, strawberries and garden strawberries belong to the same genus Strawberries of the Rosaceae family, but of different species, which, according to some sources, can be from 20 to 30. The most famous and beloved: garden strawberries or strawberries, wild strawberries, which also have garden forms with larger berries. They descended from a subspecies of alpine strawberry, which blooms all summer, therefore they themselves are distinguished by their remontability.
Real strawberries can most often be found in the collections of botanical gardens, since they are unpromising for growing in garden culture, which cannot be said about its hybrid with garden strawberries, which is called the earthworm. There is more than one variety of this berry. All of them are very decorative, give a good harvest of not very large ones - up to 20 g of berries, which are dark in color, often with a purple tint. The zemklunika took the best from both of her parents: the taste and large fruitiness from strawberries, and frost resistance and decorativeness from strawberries. Her berries are very tasty with a peculiar nutmeg aroma.
Advice! Plant a dugout in your garden. This berry is quite worthy to grow in strawberry beds.
History of the name Victoria
Garden strawberries are often called victoria. What is the difference between strawberries and victoria and is there really a difference? Let's figure out where this name came from and how to correctly call everyone's favorite berry - strawberry or victoria? Why is this berry called that?
As often happens, at one time there was a confusion that for a long time appropriated the name of the garden strawberry Victoria.
Earlier, until the end of the 18th century, wild strawberries were eaten in Russia. The first berries of large-fruited Virginia strawberries appeared in the royal garden during the reign of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich. At that time, in Europe, work was already underway to select and develop new varieties of large-fruited strawberries by crossing Virginia and Chilean strawberries. One of these varieties was obtained in France and named Victoria.
It was Victoria strawberry that was the first representative of large-fruited garden strawberries that came to our country. Since then, all garden berries in Russia have long been called Victoria, in some regions this name of the berry still exists. The variety itself turned out to be very durable and lasted about a hundred years in culture, in some places it has survived to this day.
An old but not forgotten variety
Strawberry Victoria description of the variety photo reviews of her gardeners are presented below.
Characteristics of the variety
It is a strong plant that produces a large shrub with dark, healthy leaves. Victoria strawberries are not afraid of winter frosts, but flowers are sensitive to spring frosts. It is not a very early but resistant strawberry variety. For a good harvest, it requires sufficient watering. According to gardeners, the variety is for quick consumption, as it easily deteriorates and does not have transportability. But the taste of this variety is beyond praise.
Advice! Don't chase the latest in breeding. Often, old and time-tested varieties taste much better than recently bred ones.
Agrotechnics strawberry Victoria
In order to get a good harvest of berries, you need to work hard. Breeding strawberries begins with planting them. The beds for this berry should be in a place that is illuminated throughout the day.
Advice! Choose an area for planting that is as protected from the wind as possible.
The best soil for Victoria strawberries is light sandy loam or loamy. Such soil is heavier, but it retains moisture well, which is important for growing this berry.
Advice! The soil for the strawberries should be well supplied with air.
With its lack, plants are inhibited. To enrich the topsoil with oxygen, loosen the soil after each watering. The depth of loosening next to the plants is no more than 4 cm, so as not to damage the roots.
The soil for planting strawberries in spring must be prepared in autumn, and for summer - in spring. When digging, they select all the roots of weeds, while introducing 10 kg of humus or compost per sq. m. Be sure to add a complex fertilizer up to 70 g per sq. m. m.
Attention! Strawberries love slightly acidic soil with a pH value of at least 5.5. If the pH is below 5.0, the soil needs to be limed.
This must be done in advance and strictly according to the instructions attached to the drug. Most often, chalk or dolomite flour is used for these purposes. Liming with these substances can be carried out once every 5-6 years. If such a procedure is not possible, there is a way to gradually increase the pH by frequent application of ash, which also alkalizes the soil, while enriching it with potassium and trace elements.
Only healthy plants are propagated. In the summer, you can take already rooted sockets of the first year of life. The root system should be strong, and the bush itself should have 4-5 leaves. For spring planting, last year's overwintered plants are taken.
Advice! In order to obtain a strong planting material, select the most suitable plants in advance.
They must be fully consistent with the Victoria strawberry variety and be healthy and strong no older than the second year of life. It is better not to let the selected bushes bloom, so that all the forces are spent on the formation of rosettes.
Attention! Select for planting only the outlet closest to the mother bush. Delete the rest immediately.
Planting is carried out in holes fertilized with humus and ash with the addition of 1 tsp. complex fertilizer. Wells are well spilled with water - at least 1 liter per bush. Planting Depth - The bottom level of the roots should be 20 cm from the soil level. You can't fall asleep with your heart. Advice! It is better not to fill the hole completely so that next year it will be possible to add a little humus to the strawberry plants.
There are many strawberry planting schemes. Each gardener chooses the most convenient way of planting for himself. The main thing is to keep the distance between the bushes at least 25 cm, and between the rows at least 40 cm.
Further care for strawberries is reduced to watering during drought and loosening the soil after them. Top dressing during the growing season is required. Standard pattern: early spring, budding and post-harvest.
Advice! Avoid feeding your strawberries with nitrogen fertilizers in late summer and early fall to better prepare your plants for winter.
Strawberry Victoria is an old but proven and delicious variety. Give him a place in your beds, and he will thank you with a harvest of berries with an unforgettable taste.
Marina, 38 years old, Kardymovo village
I have two children. They are very fond of berries, and strawberries are, of course, a priority. I have long wanted to buy berries that I ate once in my childhood. Finally, a friend brought from another city several bushes of the old Victoria variety. It turned out to be what I was looking for. The whole family is happy.
Arina, 29 years old, Mozhaisk
Mom told me a lot about the strawberries that grew in her village. She said that there is no such tasty and fragrant berry among modern varieties. She was called Victoria. I thought I would never find her again. But one day I saw on the Internet an advertisement for the sale of this particular variety. I wrote it out and I'm not overjoyed. Mom didn't cheat - Victoria's strawberries are very good.