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Mushroom black truffle: how to use, where to look and whether it is possible to grow

Mushroom black truffle: how to use, where to look and whether it is possible to grow


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Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) is a mushroom of the Truffle family. Differs in a peculiar aroma and nutty taste. This is a delicious type of mushroom, one of the most expensive. It grows not only in the wild; valuable specimens are cultivated at home. This business requires a lot of investment, but over time it brings good income.

What is Black Truffle

Perigord, black, French truffle is an underground representative of the species, round or irregular in shape, reaching 9 cm in diameter. It is found in black, brown, reddish, coal shades.

Classification:

  • kingdom - mushrooms;
  • family - Truffle;
  • department - marsupials;
  • class - Pezizomycetes;
  • genus - Truffle;
  • view - black truffle;
  • the Latin name is Tuber melanosporum.

What does a black truffle look like?

The fruit body of this species is under the layer of the earth. The mushroom is covered with irregularities with several edges. Its surface shimmers in various shades: from burgundy to black. When pressed, it turns rusty. The mushroom has a round or irregular shape, the size is 3-9 cm.

The flesh of a black truffle (pictured) is firm, has a light, then gray or brown shade with a marble pattern on the cut. Gradually it darkens and reaches black-violet. The spores of the fungus are curved, oval or fusiform, 35x25 microns in size, dark brown.

Sectional black truffle

How black truffle grows

The growth of the mushroom body occurs underground at a depth of 10-50 cm. Mushrooms interact with deciduous trees.

Where does the black truffle grow

Black truffle is a mycorrhizal forming agent with oak and some other higher plants. You can find it in deciduous forests. The depth of growth is up to half a meter, more often a few centimeters. This type is most widespread in France, Spain, Italy.

In the Moscow region, black truffles can be found, but not so often. The mushroom grows from November to March, it is harvested mainly in the first months of the year.

Important! The search for mushrooms is done with a wild pig or trained dog who can smell it well. You can also determine the place of growth by the red flies that swarm above the ground, because their larvae develop in mushrooms.

Black truffle grows in Russia. It can be found in the Oryol, Moscow, Tula, Vladimir, Smolensk regions.

Can you eat black truffle?

Black truffle dishes are considered a delicacy. This is a very tasty mushroom that stands out for its specific aroma. In Italy, they are seasoned with pasta and risotto. It goes well with eggs and is used to make cream. They also make preparations, the canned black truffle retains its properties and aroma. This mushroom is good for the body. Many admire its taste, but there are also those who did not like it. Rarity and high cost lead to the fact that not everyone can enjoy a delicacy.

The most common recipe is black truffle pasta. To prepare it, you will need the following ingredients:

  • dry paste - 350 g;
  • black truffle - 1 piece;
  • cream - 250 ml;
  • butter - 30 g;
  • sea ​​salt to taste;
  • grated parmesan - 100 g.

The truffle is peeled and finely chopped. At this time, the pasta is prepared. It is brewed al dente, that is, it is periodically tasted. The finished pasta does not stick to the teeth, and also has a uniform color on the cut. Place butter and sauce in the paste. To prepare the latter, you need to take the mushroom shavings, previously salted, place in cream, which is poured into a frying pan. Then the parmesan is added. The sauce is cooked until it acquires a thick consistency. Add pasta to the pan. The result is a fragrant and satisfying dish.

Black Truffle Ready Pasta

What does black truffle taste like?

The truffle has a mushroom flavor with hints of roasted seeds or nuts. It has a bright, rich aroma. If it is kept a little in water, it will taste like soy sauce.

How is black truffle eaten

There are many recipes for preparing dishes with the addition of this delicious mushroom. It is usually rubbed finely or cut into thin strips. Additionally, you can use truffle sauce to enhance the flavor of the dish.

How black truffle is served and eaten:

  • since the mushroom itself is very expensive, it is rarely eaten in its pure form, more often it is added to various sauces, to which it gives a special taste;
  • expensive dishes, for example, black caviar, are usually sprinkled with no less noble truffle shavings;
  • this representative of the mushroom kingdom is combined with both different types of meat and sweet fruits;
  • the mushroom can be eaten raw, baked, steamed, stewed;
  • truffle in champagne is a favorite dish of many gourmets in different countries, this is the most refined version of its use;
  • to give a dish a specific aroma, it is not necessary to add the mushroom itself; soaking the ingredients in a truffle is often used.

In popular restaurants in Moscow, you can see unusual dishes with the addition of this mushroom. Creative chefs prepare truffle burgers, fries, hot dogs with its addition. Sushi with truffles can be found in Peruvian cuisine, and khachapuri in Georgian cuisine. This mushroom goes well with a wide variety of flavors and foods.

The benefits of black truffle

The benefits of this mushroom for the human body are as follows:

  • the presence of pheromones in the composition helps to improve the emotional state;
  • B vitamins help maintain the health of the nervous system;
  • mushroom juice is good for people with eye diseases;
  • contains many antioxidants, therefore, prevents the development of diseases;
  • helps to relieve pain during exacerbation of gout symptoms.

Previously, it was classified as one of the strongest aphrodisiacs, to this day it is used to enhance love experiences in men. Its benefits are universal.

Due to the content of vitamins and minerals, the mushroom has a positive effect on the child's body during increased growth. Since the composition contains a large amount of antioxidants, it is considered an anti-aging product. Some beauticians use it as an ingredient in anti-wrinkle masks.

Important! The black truffle is considered the most valuable of its kind. Together with him, a person receives vitamins C, PP, B2, minerals, antioxidants, dietary fiber, proteins, pheromones.

There is harm from the product when there is an individual intolerance to the fungus, which is extremely rare. It is not recommended to eat a mushroom dish if there are digestive problems.

False doubles

The counterparts include false and deer truffles, as well as inedible tombolans. Their use poses a threat to health. False truffle can lead to severe intoxication with a fatal outcome, deer - to indigestion, inedible tombolan - to poisoning and disorders of the gastrointestinal tract.

False truffle

Deer truffle

Inedible tombolan

How to grow a black truffle at home

It is necessary to prepare a place for growing, taking into account the following:

  • the optimal soil pH level is 7.9, but not less than 7.5;
  • comfortable temperature - 16-22 ° C;
  • the soil should be saturated with humus, calcium. It is desirable that there are no stones on the site;
  • the top layer of soil is collected from deciduous forest;
  • nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers are used for nutrition;
  • before planting, be sure to carry out mechanical soil cultivation.

These fungi form mycorrhiza with oak trees, so they are planted with a sprout of a tree inoculated with mycelium. Do this before the onset of frost.

Not only oak, but also hazel can be infected with mycelium. The seedlings should then be stored for several weeks under sterile conditions. Next, the seedlings are ready for planting in a prepared nursery.

Important! The first months you need to be careful with this territory, because the final survival takes place within a year. During this period, seedlings reach 20 cm in height.

Successful engraftment does not guarantee a good harvest. There are pests that are dangerous for truffles. If the cultivation takes place in a fenced area, the risk is reduced. Rabbits, pigs and hares are very fond of this mushroom. The only way to escape them is to fence off the area well.

Even more problems are caused by weevils and black cockroaches, which are no longer so easy to get rid of. To protect against these pests, boric acid is used, which is sprayed throughout the territory. The acid must be mixed with the egg, put the balls on paper, changing the mixture every day. You can buy ready-made pest control products.

Steps for growing black truffles at home:

  1. Preparing the soil: saturating it with oxygen, removing stones and foreign objects.
  2. Check the acidity of the soil before planting.
  3. Preparation of oak sawdust, where the mycelium will be located.
  4. Mixing the mycelium with fertilized soil.
  5. Spreading the prepared mixture on oak sawdust.

The first harvest will not happen very soon. Landing costs will not pay off not earlier than in a few years. But if you approach this correctly, you can collect several tens of kilograms in one season.

The appearance of fungi can be observed on the elevations above the soil. They will be located approximately at a depth of 20 centimeters. It is not so easy to notice them, because they blend in color with the soil.

To avoid damage, you need to take out the truffle with a small spatula

To facilitate the collection process, the practice of training pigs and dogs has long been established in France. A stick impregnated with a truffle scent is thrown to the animals so that they can find it and bring it back. Puppies are given milk with the addition of mushroom broth. This allows pets to learn the aroma and easily find fruit bodies in the earth.

Helpful tips for proper cultivation:

  • the soil should not have cracks, and when they appear, they need to be covered with sand;
  • it is contraindicated to grow trees such as poplars, willows, chestnuts on the territory, because they have a detrimental effect on the growth and condition of mushrooms;
  • during harvest, each truffle must be wrapped separately in paper and stored in rice. To keep the fruit bodies moist, it is best to keep them in the refrigerator.

Conclusion

Black truffle has been used in cooking since the 15th century. It all started in Italy, but then they began to grow it in the Moscow province. This is a delicacy worth trying. It has no harm to the body and can be prepared even for children. And growing it with proper preparation can be a profitable business.


Watch the video: Mushroom Cultivation Training (February 2023).

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