Currant is one of the few berry bushes that can be propagated by cuttings at any time of the year. In many ways, this quality contributed to its widespread distribution on the territory of our country. Propagating currants by cuttings in summer or spring is quite simple, if you follow certain rules.
Features of the propagation of currants by cuttings in spring and summer
Cutting currants in spring and summer is one of the vegetative propagation methods of this plant. It is widely used not only for berry bushes, but also for fruit trees. Annual shoots are best suited for propagation of currants.
When to cut currants
In winter and early spring, woody cuttings are used to propagate black currants. These are parts of annual shoots, cut in the fall. In spring and summer, namely from May to July, currants can be propagated using the so-called "green" cuttings. They represent non-lignified shoots of the current year, or rather, their flexible tops, which have a bright green color. For propagation of currants by cuttings in summer, the most leafy ends of shoots with a length of at least 10 cm are chosen.
At the end of summer, semi-lignified stem cuttings are used to propagate currants. These are parts of the shoots of the current year, on which the bark has already formed. Semi-lignified cuttings are light brown in color and do not exhibit significant flexibility.
Rules for harvesting cuttings
Harvesting currant cuttings for propagation is done in cool weather, usually in the early morning. You will need scissors or pruning shears to work. Fresh green cuttings are relatively easy to cut and require little effort. For cutting currants in spring and summer, they choose well-fruiting young bushes that do not have signs of diseases and are not affected by pests. The cut parts of the plant are immediately wrapped in a damp burlap, preventing them from drying out. After harvesting a sufficient amount of material for propagation, proceed to direct cutting of cuttings.
Important! If the cuttings are not cut immediately after harvesting, then to prevent moisture loss, the sections are covered with resin or paraffin, and you can also use activated carbon powder for this purpose.
For cutting cuttings for propagation of black or red currants in the summer, it is most convenient to use all the same scissors or a sharp clerical knife. The cut shoots are divided into parts 12-15 cm long with an oblique cut so that each cutting contains 3-4 internodes. 2-3 leaves are left in the upper part, if the lower sheet is more than 6 cm, cut it in half with scissors to reduce moisture evaporation from the sheet plate. The leaves are removed completely from the lower part of the cutting. Ready cuttings, if necessary, are sorted by grade and tied into bundles with twine or elastic bands.
Important! The upper cut of the cutting should be 1 cm from the kidney, the lower one - 1 cm lower.
How to propagate currants by cuttings in spring and summer
Having prepared the cuttings of currants for reproduction, you can immediately start rooting them. To form your own root system, you can first use water or immediately plant them in a nutrient substrate or prepared soil.
Reproduction of currants by cuttings in spring in water
The formation of the root system of cuttings in water allows you to visually trace the entire rooting process. The method is extremely simple and effective. In early spring, cuttings harvested from the fall are placed several pieces in a container with water so that 2 lower internodes are submerged. After 1-1.5 weeks, the growth of the root lobe will become noticeable, tubercles will appear in the place of future roots. After that, the cuttings are transferred to individual larger containers, making sure that the roots are always in the water. As the root lobe grows, the leaves will begin to bloom on the handle, but if flowers appear, then they must be cut off.
The whole process of forming its own root system in water can take from 1.5 to 2 months. All this time, you need to regularly monitor the water level in containers with cuttings, updating it from time to time. Sprouted cuttings are planted in open ground in a permanent place, usually in May, after the soil has warmed up sufficiently.
Important! Cuttings during germination in water should be constantly located in a well-lit place.
How to root currants by cuttings in the substrate
In addition to the water method, you can plant black currants with cuttings in a special substrate. In this case, the root system is formed in a loose, moisture-absorbing material that retains water well and at the same time has good air permeability, which is important for root development. The substrate can be:
- sphagnum moss;
- river sand;
- coconut fiber;
- small sawdust.
To root the cuttings, a planting container is filled with a substrate - a wide, shallow container that can be closed with transparent material, glass or film. The lower part of the cuttings with a cut is treated with Kornevin or any other root growth stimulator, and then planted in a container with a substrate at an angle of 45 °, deepening by 8-10 cm.The distance between adjacent cuttings should be about 10 cm, too frequent planting can negatively affect the growth of the root system.
After planting, the container with cuttings is covered with a film or any transparent material, simulating greenhouse conditions, and placed in a well-lit place. In this case, direct sunlight on the seedlings should be avoided. The whole process of rooting currant cuttings in the substrate can take 3-4 weeks. All this time, the substrate needs to be moistened, gradually reducing the frequency of watering from 5-6 times a day in the first week to 2-3 times in the last. Control over the condition of seedlings should be carried out regularly. If the buds are blackened and dry, then the stalk has not taken root and must be removed.
How to plant currants in spring cuttings in open ground
The currant is good because the rooting rate of its cuttings is very good. Therefore, some gardeners, when propagating it, do not use the intermediate formation of the root system of the future seedling in water or substrate, but immediately plant currant cuttings in open ground. In this case, rooting will be slower, the likelihood of rooting the cuttings will decrease, and in case of a successful result, the beginning of fruiting will be postponed by a year. Therefore, it is more advisable to use already sprouted cuttings for reproduction. They are transplanted into open ground in May, when there is no threat of return frosts.
For planting, it is necessary to prepare the soil in advance, dig it up and fertilize it by adding organic and mineral fertilizers. The first year in the open field, the seedlings are grown, so they are usually planted in rows, in special shallow grooves, at a distance of 0.25 m from each other. In the fall, the condition of the seedlings is visually assessed. If they are healthy, strong and well developed, then they are transplanted to a permanent place. Weak specimens are left for the winter. Such seedlings are transferred to a permanent place only next spring, since immature plants may not withstand the stress of transplanting, they will not root enough and die in winter.
How to care for cuttings after planting
After planting in open ground, young seedlings require increased attention. If night temperatures drop dramatically, a shelter should be provided for protection, at least for the first time. It is best to use a greenhouse or greenhouse for growing cuttings, but not all gardeners have the opportunity to use these structures for a crop such as currants. Therefore, to protect against night low temperatures, a film, a covering material, is used. Often planted cuttings are covered with cut plastic transparent containers from under drinking water.
At first, the seedlings need to be shaded, avoiding direct sunlight. It is regularly required to moisten the soil, the trunks need to be cleaned of weeds and mulched.
Transfer to a permanent place
To plant currants in your garden plot, you need to choose places illuminated by diffused sunlight. Well suited in this capacity are sites along fences, areas in the immediate vicinity of buildings and structures, places near large fruit trees. The site should not be low-lying or swampy, if groundwater approaches the surface closer than 1 m, then it is necessary to artificially increase the height of the soil at the site of the future planting.
The soil is dug up in advance, removing weeds, stones, and other debris. At the same time, fertilizers are embedded in the soil. Compost and rotted manure are best suited for this purpose; at the same time, a small amount of phosphorus and potassium supplements can be added. Currants prefer to grow on soils with neutral acidity. However, not all soils have such pH characteristics. If the acidity of the soil exceeds the permissible values, then slaked lime, chalk or dolomite flour are additionally included in the fertilizer.
Transplanting a seedling to a permanent place is carried out in early spring, before the beginning of the growing processes of the plant, or at the beginning of autumn. The second option is considered more preferable, but in regions with early winter coming, it is unacceptable. From the moment of planting to the onset of frost, at least 2 months must pass, otherwise there is a very high risk that the plant will not be able to adapt to a new place and die in winter. In other regions, it is better to plant currants in the fall, since this shrub enters the growing season very early, which means that there is a great risk of being late with the dates, because of which the rehabilitation process in a new place will be greatly delayed.
Important! For group planting, the distance between adjacent bushes is selected based on the variety of currants. If the bushes are tall and spreading, then the interval should be at least 1.5 m, for low compact shrubs 0.8-1 m is enough.
It is better to dig a planting hole for a currant seedling in advance, 2-3 weeks before the expected time of work. Its size must be guaranteed to accommodate the entire root system of the transplanted bush. The standard size of the planting pit is 0.5 m in diameter. The depth should not be more than 0.5 m, since the root system of the currant has a surface structure. The soil removed from the pit is mixed with humus, for additional nutritional value, superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added to its composition. If the soil is clayey, river sand is added to the composition of the soil.
Important! Fresh manure, chicken droppings and any nitrogen fertilizers cannot be used when planting currants.
For planting, it is better to choose a cloudy but warm day. A small mound of nutrient soil is poured at the bottom of the planting pit. The seedling is planted at an angle of 30-45 ° to the surface, while its direction does not matter. This method of planting stimulates the growth of a large number of lateral roots, the plant adapts faster and gives a large amount of root growth. However, if the currant is planned to be grown in a standard form, then the seedling is installed in the pit strictly vertically. Gradually, the root system is covered with nutritious soil, periodically watered with water and compacted to prevent the formation of voids. After all work, the root collar should be 5-6 cm below the soil surface.
Important! When transplanting currant bushes, the deepening rule is preserved, the planting depth in a new place should be greater than the previous one.
After the planting hole is completely filled with soil, an annular groove is formed around the seedling and abundant watering is carried out (usually 2 buckets for each bush). Then the soil in the root zone is mulched with peat, compost, and tree bark. Such a measure retains moisture in the soil and inhibits the growth of weeds.
To propagate currants by cuttings in summer or spring, you do not need to make significant efforts. It is very simple to work with this shrub, it is unpretentious and often forgives the gardener many mistakes. Cutting currants is an excellent way to propagate it, applicable in spring, summer and even winter. When using it, you can get any amount of planting material in a short time. This is especially true for economical gardeners, as well as for those who are engaged in the cultivation of currants on an industrial scale.