The ryadovka shod mushroom, known as matsutake, is a member of the ryadovkov family. It is considered a delicacy, most appreciated in Eastern countries, often used in the preparation of Asian dishes. A photo and description of a shod row will help distinguish it from other members of the family. The mushroom has a bright taste and useful properties.
What does a shod rowing look like (matsutake)
Row shod or tricholoma caligatum, has a wide cap, the diameter of which can reach 20 cm. The shade can vary from light brown to dark brown, or resinous. Mature specimens have cracks around the cap. This allows you to see the soft body of the mushroom. There are many scales on the surface of the cap. The scales themselves are dark brown in color.
The leg thickness is on average 2.5-3 cm, and its length can reach 20-25 cm. The leg is widest at the base. It has a brown tint, a sharp downward slope, and is located near the ground. She also has a brown shade ring.
The lamellar body of the shod ridge is of a light color; there is a small depression on the plates themselves. In young specimens, the lamellar body is hidden under a protective film, so it is not noticeable. As the fungus grows, the film transforms into a ring at the bottom of the stem, its distinctive feature is the presence of a fringe.
In the mushroom, the ryadovka shod pulp on the leg has a white tint, the texture is elastic and dense. The spores are small and round in shape.
Where does the shod rowing grow in Russia
Row shod or matsutake grows in countries such as Japan, China, Korea, Sweden, as well as Russia. It is found in areas dominated by a sandy type of soil covered with moss. Most often - in pine forests and coniferous forests. Sometimes the rowing is found in parks and garden plantings.
This mushroom is considered quite rare, in almost all regions of the country it is included in the regional red books. The row can be found on the Kola Peninsula in the Murmansk region. The shod row is sometimes found in the Leningrad region, it grows in the forests. The most optimal time for harvesting is considered to be autumn, mainly the month of October.
Some varieties are found in other areas as well. The gray shoe rowing is found in the Moscow region in coniferous, as well as mixed forests. It can be found between August and the first frost.
The shod row is most often found in the Urals. Mainly in the Irkutsk and Amur regions, as well as in the Khabarovsk Territory.
How to find a shoe row
This type of mushroom differs in that they grow deep enough. In some cases, the row has to be dug out, since its leg is far in the ground. It is quite difficult to detect it with the naked eye. The mushroom picker has to carefully peer into the ground, since more often the row is disguised under fallen leaves or under moss.
Mostly matsutake hides under white moss, but sometimes it is found under conifers or oak trees. The mushroom is located at the very foot of the tree, while it grows only in those oak trees that are at least 70 years old. The row grows around the tree trunk, forming a ring shape.
It is necessary to search in infertile soil. When the leaves fall, the soil becomes the most fertile, in such conditions the fungus stops multiplying. This explains the fact that the ryadovka does not bear fruit in the same place for more than 8 years.
Matsutake only grows under certain climatic conditions. It can be found only in areas where the daytime temperature does not exceed 26 ° C, while at night the temperature does not drop below 15 ° C. It grows most readily during periods of heavy rainfall.
Important! When collecting a row, it is forbidden to break the mycelium, it is necessary to cut it off with a knife, otherwise it will lead to the death of the whole family.
More information about mushroom picking in this video:
Is it possible to eat a spotted row
Spotted ryadovka is considered an edible mushroom. In Asian countries, ryadovka is given special attention, since it is considered a delicacy and is used to prepare many dishes.
Attention! Poisonous specimens are also found among the ryadovka; their characteristic feature is a sharp unpleasant odor, which intensifies during a break.
In order not to cut off the poisonous mushroom, when collecting, one should take into account the characteristic features related to edible specimens:
- thick layer of pulp;
- small cracks at the edges;
- slightly convex hat;
- the leg is cylindrical;
- there are plates;
- the smell is weak.
Poisonous and edible mushrooms differ not only in smell, but also in appearance. The flesh of edible matsutake is white, firm and not watery. The leg is long, dark brown in color. It is difficult to extract from the soil.
The ryadovka has bright taste, its smack slightly resembles pear and pine needles. They taste great with potatoes and fried onions. They are often added to various salads, combined with rice, bell peppers, mayonnaise, garlic and paprika. All possible methods are used for cooking, mushrooms can be pickled, salted, stewed, fried and boiled.
The taste is slightly bitter, the smell is reminiscent of the aroma of anise.
Benefits and harm to the body
Matsutake has antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. In addition, the use of the mushroom helps to increase the protective properties of the body, since it contains a large number of useful substances presented in the table.
Minerals and vitamins
Vitamins of group B, C, A, PP, K, D.
· Glutamic acid;
Regular consumption of ryadovka helps to improve the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, normalize blood sugar levels and stabilize blood pressure. It also helps to reduce nervous tension, improves performance and relieves fatigue. Removes toxins, improves the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract and liver.
Poisonous counterparts of matsutake are rare. A poisonous mushroom can be easily distinguished from an edible one, as it has striking features. The poisonous gray row differs in its appearance, since its pulp has a dull gray color, the texture is uneven, slimy. Its use causes disruption of the gastrointestinal tract in a severe form.
The poisonous white ryadovka, despite the name, does not have a white tint. Its color is nondescript, gray-white. Young individuals are practically odorless. However, when they break, a pungent and unpleasant odor appears. In false specimens, the color of the hat is different, it resembles the color of a leopard, and has a large number of spots.
Important! To identify the false mushroom, it is recommended to slightly break the pulp. Poisonous specimens have a pungent odor.
The type of inedible row is shown in the photo.
Collecting a row is recommended in the autumn, and the greatest number of mushrooms can be observed during the first cold weather. The exact collection period depends on the specific location: in some regions, matsutake can be found as early as August. But it is best to go to the forest in the first autumn months, when the foliage begins to fall.
When collecting matsutake, the mushroom must not be pulled out; it is carefully cut with a knife so as not to damage the entire mycelium. They are looking for a row in open areas, especially in areas where a large amount of moss grows. It is also found at the base of trees. The distinguishing feature is that several mushrooms form a whole row.
Matsutake mushrooms are heat treated, they are also pickled and salted. Eating raw is contraindicated. It is not recommended to eat old mushrooms, as they have the ability to accumulate anthropogenic pollution in themselves. With a large and too frequent eating, gastrointestinal disturbances may occur.
These mushrooms are used not only in cooking, but also in cosmetology and medicine. On their basis, some antibiotics, drugs for diabetics, as well as medicines for the treatment of cancer are produced. Matsutake is also used to treat skin diseases: it is used as a lotion.
How to grow a shod ryadovka
Growing shod rows is a rather complicated process. The algorithm is similar to mushroom cultivation. The crop is established in May, dry straw and horse manure or bird droppings can be used as soil. They can be grown in garden beds or at home. A prerequisite is compliance with the temperature regime - the air temperature should not fall below 15 ° C.
It is very important to create high humidity after planting. It is necessary to add soil, the average thickness of which is 5 cm. For successful cultivation, there must be sufficient light level, as well as fresh air.
If you want to grow matsutake, they take into account all the requirements on their own. Growing conditions must be suitable. It is best to use a summer cottage for these purposes, since at home these mushrooms do not have enough light and air, which leads to their death.
Matsutake is a rare mushroom, to find it, you need to make a lot of effort, which will help the photo and description of the shoe row. When collecting, they pay attention to their appearance and smell, since sometimes you can find a poisonous double, at first glance similar to an edible mushroom.