You can expand the number of fruit plantations in the garden by purchasing ready-made seedlings. Only this is an expensive pleasure and not for everyone on a budget. The most affordable option is to multiply the plum yourself. The easiest way is to propagate it by root shoots. Although there are other, equally effective methods.
In the process of cultivating fruit crops, several effective methods of plum propagation have been developed. The plant is quite malleable and takes root easily, giving multiple shoots. It should be disposed of in a timely manner, so as not to interfere with the full development of plantings. The article will tell you how to do it correctly and usefully.
Of all the methods of propagation of plums, vegetative ones are the most popular:
- seed germination;
- root shoots.
The first two types of reproduction of plums are artificial, the last three are natural.
Plum propagation by layering
When plums are propagated by air layers, the original varietal characteristics can be fully preserved. To do this, it is enough to select developed shoots with several living buds on the surface. Then you need to root the plum branch next to the mother bush.
The favorable period for the procedure is spring, and in the fall you can separate and transplant to your place. All this time, you should create comfortable conditions for the rooting of the layer.
Plum propagation by cuttings
This method of plum propagation has become popular among amateur gardeners, although it was previously used only in industrial production. Its advantage is the high survival rate of plantings and the preservation of valuable varietal qualities. The result depends on a number of factors:
- used equipment;
- the state of the planting material and the mother plant;
- timing of grafting.
It is recommended to root plum cuttings in spring.
Propagation by green cuttings
Suitable for dark varieties. A lignified shoot is cut from the mother bush and divided into several parts of 20-25 cm. Each should have 2-3 leaves. After 12-13 hours of settling, they are planted in a special solution (growth stimulant).
Cover with foil, put in a warm place and moisturize regularly. After 14–20 days, young plum roots appear.
Plum propagation by shoots
Plum propagation by root shoots is a favorite method among gardeners, due to its simplicity and effectiveness. Suitable for varieties with a fairly developed root system. They tend to give a large number of offspring, with which you can experiment in the future.
With proper work and proper care, the plum from the shoot will begin to bear fruit almost next year, after a maximum of 2 years.
Another option for breeding plum culture, but not too popular. With it, it will not be possible to preserve the original qualities of the mother plant.
The bones are kept in the cold for half a year (from autumn to spring), wrapped in damp gauze. Then they are planted in a regular flower pot. They take care of the germinated material, like any houseplant:
- watered regularly;
- carry out preventive treatment against pests.
In the fall, when the process is sufficiently extended, it is transplanted to the garden plot. But first growing is required in a greenhouse or in a garden bed, under a film. And in the next season, if the plant has successfully survived the winter, it is relocated to a permanent place of residence.
To preserve the varietal properties of the plant, this method is the most successful. A shoot grown from seeds is grafted onto the stock (base). The bud is cut off together with the bark, a deep transverse incision is made and a scion split is inserted into it. The structure is fixed with polyethylene.
Water abundantly to activate juicing. After 2-3 weeks, the film is removed.
How to propagate plum shoots
It is easier and faster to propagate plums with measles than in other ways. A crop produces many shoots every year, and it is important to remove them constantly so as not to weaken the development of the plant.
Is it possible to grow a plum from a shoot
Plum shoots retain varietal qualities if they were taken from self-rooted crops - not grafted. Not all varieties are suitable for this. Most Acceptable Hybrids:
- Hungarian Moscow;
- Tula black;
- Local yellow;
- Early ripening red.
Otherwise, the appendages will differ from the source in appearance.
It is possible to plant shoots from healthy plum trees with high productivity. It is recommended to take offspring located at a distance from the mother bush.
Will the plum grown from the sprout bear fruit?
Despite all the advantages of propagation by root shoots, even outwardly strong seedlings are less durable and productive than multiplied using other technologies. Coppice trees bear fruit in different ways.
How to sprout plums
Most often, the shoots are transplanted to a separate area in the fall, in September - early October. A spring transplant is also possible, before the start of sap flow (until the buds are open).
Plantings 2-3 years old are chosen as a source for seedlings. They should be healthy, vigorous, abundantly fruitful and have a well-developed root system. Such specimens usually grow where there is a lot of light and not far from the mother trees.
Sequence of steps for reproduction by shoots:
- Carefully dig up the main root, which lies horizontally and away from the trunk. Cut off part.
- If the root is deprived of processes, then it is separately grown for some time in a greenhouse. Just before that, soak in a solution of "Kornevin" (growth stimulant). This happens when the seedling grows near the mother tree.
- If there are enough growths, then they make holes nearby, apply fertilizers there and plant root shoots.
- The soil is carefully tamped and watered abundantly.
- The next year, with the first spring warmth, young seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place of residence.
It is possible to improve the condition of the roots with the help of advance preparation. Since autumn, the root ball of an adult plant is cut along the perimeter using a shovel. In the spring, plum shoots are dug up and separated.
A similar procedure is allowed in early spring. Throughout the warm season, the root space is moistened, loosened and weeded, fed. As a result, many lateral processes are formed by autumn.
For what year does a plum grown from a shoot bear fruit?
If you approach the process correctly, then the plum shoot will bear fruit in the second or third year.
How to grow a plum from a cutting
Plum can be propagated by cuttings if the goal is to obtain healthy and stable fruit trees. A stalk rooted in accordance with all the rules of agricultural technology, in a few years will turn into a full-fledged rooted fruit plant. You can grow a plum from a lignified or green cutting.
Is it possible to plant a plum with a handle
Not all plum varieties can be cut in spring. Only those that give abundant root growth are suitable. These include:
- Red dessert;
- Renklode Tambov;
- Volga beauty;
- Memory of Timiryazev.
The survival rate of a plant by cuttings is about 45-50%.
Plum cuttings: in spring, summer and autumn (terms, nuances, advantages)
A less labor-intensive method of propagation is considered to be cutting plums with lignified cuttings in the spring, during the dormant period of the plant. If the use of green cuttings is meant, then the harvesting is better done in the summer: in the regions of the middle lane this is the beginning of June. It is at this time that active vegetative growth takes place.
In the summer period, the tops of the shoots are still quite vulnerable, and the bottom has time to lignify. It is advisable to take green cuttings from young trees: the older the plant, the less chance of successful rooting.
Advice! In cool regions, lignified cuttings are cut for propagation in late autumn, but before the onset of frost. They are stored until spring at a temperature of -3 ... + 2 ° C.
It is recommended to root plum cuttings in the spring, so that it can fully adapt over the summer and painlessly endure the winter.
Rooting plum cuttings
Propagation by cuttings is usually carried out in a greenhouse structure, which should be done in advance. A mixture of river sand and peat in equal amounts is taken as a substrate. They put it in a greenhouse, and spread a sand layer 1–1.5 cm thick on top. Immediately before planting, watered abundantly.
Advice! You can germinate cuttings at home, in bulky boxes.
For propagation by cuttings, long shoots are chosen, at least 30 cm. They must have live eyes. Plum cuts are immersed in water for several hours. Do the same with cuttings that have been kept cool since autumn.
They are often sprayed and, as soon as the first leaves hatch, the branch is cut into several plots 7-10 cm long. They use a sharp knife for this. Each requires 1–2 internodes.
A tree can be grown from a plum stalk if you follow a certain sequence of actions:
- An oblique incision is made on the handle from below, directly above the last leaf.
- They are treated with a growth stimulant according to the instructions on the package: dissolve it in water and put the slices in the solution for 6-7 hours.
- Pre-moisten the soil thoroughly.
- Properly harvested cuttings are planted on a separate bed with loose soil, in a greenhouse or mobile boxes at home. It is advisable to dig them in at a slight slope to the depth of the cut. The optimal interval between plantings is 5-7 cm.
- Additionally, a peat-sand mixture is scattered over the surface.
- Water well and cover with white covering material. They remove it as soon as the plum cuttings take root and young shoots hatch.
Growing plum cuttings
Sprouting plum cuttings involves basic care:
- maintaining the optimal temperature regime in the greenhouse - 24 ... 30 ° C;
- watering - 2-3 times a day;
Important! The adventitious roots in easily rooted hybrids appear within 15–17 days, in slowly rooting hybrids - after 25–30 days.
As soon as the first roots are formed, the film shelter must be removed for a short time every day for airing. A month after planting, they are fed with mineral supplements. For the winter, young seedlings are insulated with a layer of peat and dry foliage.
When can rooted plum cuttings be transplanted?
Regardless of how the plum is propagated by cuttings: at home or in a greenhouse, planting in open ground is carried out after warming up - in early spring. The air temperature must be stable at least 8… 12 ° C.
Additional information on the propagation of plums by cuttings will be given by the video:
Reproduction of plums is a simple process, but it requires patience and some knowledge. If you initially competently and responsibly approach the plum propagation procedure, the processes from it will bear fruit no worse than the mother tree. This will require proper care at all stages of growth.