A photo of a boletus mushroom must be studied by every mushroom picker, this mushroom is considered one of the most delicious and delicious. Remember the external features of the boletus and find it in the forest is quite easy.
Why is the mushroom called boletus
The name of the mushroom is very easily deciphered, boletus, or simply birch, is most often found next to birches. It forms a symbiosis, or mycorrhiza, with the roots of this tree, although it can grow close to other trees.
In addition, a certain resemblance to birch can be seen in the structure of the mushroom itself, its stem is covered with longitudinal scales of a dark color, partly reminiscent of stripes on birches.
Boletus in another way is also called simply birch. Sometimes you can see him under the name obabka, this word comes from the dialectical word "baba" meaning "stump", and is especially common in the Arkhangelsk and Pskov regions. Accordingly, the word "obabok" simply means a mushroom growing next to the stump, or "with a woman."
Important! It is interesting that in symbiosis not only a large tree contributes to the development of the fungus, the boletus itself provides the birch with minerals necessary for the plant to develop. Thus, the neighborhood turns out to be equally beneficial for the birch fungus and for the tree.
Types of boletus
In Russia, boletus can be found in several varieties, except for the ordinary one. It would be more correct to say that under this name many species of boletus are combined with photos and descriptions that differ in color and place of growth, but have similarities in structure.
It is useful to know their features in order to find out when found in the forest:
- The black. The fruit body is slightly smaller in size than that of an ordinary birch tree, its cap is darker, brown, the flesh quickly turns blue on the break.
- White. The fungus grows mainly in swamps and in mossy shady forests, it is distinguished by a light cap with almost white scales.
- Turning pink. You can recognize it by its thin curved leg and gray-brown or brown color. A characteristic feature of a pinking birch tree is that its pulp on the cut does not turn blue from contact with air, but acquires a pinkish tint.
- Grey. In color and structure, it is similar to an ordinary boletus, it has a velvety brownish or olive-brown hemispherical cap.
- Harsh, or poplar. In appearance it is similar to an ordinary birch tree; in the center of the cap in adult mushrooms, there may be a small depression. A characteristic feature of the harsh birch tree is its tough pulp.
- Blackening. It is distinguished by a yellow-brown cap and a lemon-yellow tubular layer; on the cut it becomes purple and then black in color.
- Multi-colored. An unusual birch tree has a motley gray-brown cap, as if covered with frequent strokes.
Studying the varieties of boletus allows you to correctly recognize unusual but edible mushrooms and put them in the basket.
What does a boletus mushroom look like?
Boletus belongs to mushrooms, which are easy to recognize in appearance. His cap is convex, in the shape of a hemisphere, reaches 15 cm in diameter. The surface of the cap is dull and dry, and in shade it can be gray, brown-brown or almost black, depending on the variety and growing conditions of the fungus. On the underside, the cap is white at a young age, becomes grayish-brown as it grows, the surface is spongy.
The boletus leg is light beige, yellowish or brownish, dense and slightly thickened towards the base. In height, it reaches an average of 15 cm, covered with dark longitudinal stripes-scales, they allow you to unmistakably recognize the birch mushroom.
If you break a birch in half, then its pulp will turn out to be white, it will either not change its colors in the air, or it will acquire a bluish or pinkish tint. The structure of the pulp is dense, but in adult mushrooms it becomes loose.
Features of the structure of boletus
Outwardly, a birch tree at a young age can resemble a porcini mushroom in its shape and shade of a cap. But it's easy to recognize him by his leg. It is boletus that is characterized by small gray and black scales, which are located in a longitudinal order and make the leg a little like a birch trunk.
The structural features of the fungus largely depend on the place of growth. So, in birch trees growing in light and dry forests, the legs are usually thick and dense, while those that appear in damp places and on the outskirts of swamps have tall, thin and lighter legs.
Where boletus grows
You can find an edible mushroom almost throughout Russia. The fungus grows in the middle lane, it is found in Siberia and the Far East, in the northern regions. The birch tree is also found in the Russian subtropics - it can be found in the Caucasus and Crimea.
Most often, birch is found in birch forests directly near birches, boletus supplies the roots of the tree with nutrients and itself receives important compounds from it. You can also find it in any deciduous and mixed forests, on the edges and at the edge of meadows, near ravines. Birch prefers calcareous soils, but it can grow on other types of soil.
How many boletus mushrooms grow
A characteristic feature of birch trees is the very rapid growth of fruit bodies. In just a day, they add about 4 cm in height and gain up to 10 g in weight.
Attention! However, boletus mushrooms do not retain their freshness for long. 5-6 days after emergence from the ground, the fruit body begins to age, the pulp becomes loose, and it is often affected by worms and insects.
When boletus mushrooms are harvested
Edible mushrooms appear quite early, already at the end of May, and grow until October and the first frost. It is recommended to collect them during the period of highest fruiting, from July to September, when a maximum of young and fresh fruit bodies is observed in the forests.
How to distinguish a gall mushroom from a boletus
Thanks to the characteristic photo and description of the boletus mushroom, it practically does not have false counterparts. However, sometimes it can be confused with bitterness, or gall fungus.
The species are similar to each other in the following ways:
- in the shape of a cap, in both it is hemispherical and convex, with a spongy lower surface consisting of many small tubes;
- in color - dark brown, gray, light brown, brownish, yellow-brown for both mushrooms;
- on the leg - dense, fleshy and slightly thickened in the lower part near the surface of the earth.
However, mushrooms also have significant differences, namely:
- the leg of the bitterness is covered not with longitudinal scales, as in a birch, but with larger branched veins, resembling vessels;
- even in a young bile fungus, the tubules on the underside of the cap are yellowish, and if the tubular layer is cut off, it will quickly turn red from interaction with air;
- the upper side of the cap in boletus is smooth, and in bitter mushrooms it is slightly velvety and in damp weather it does not smooth out from touch.
In addition, the gall fungus is never touched by worms and forest insects, unlike the birch tree, it is not suitable for them to eat.
Important! The bile mushroom does not possess poisonous properties, even if you eat a little of its pulp, it will not cause serious harm to health.
Boletus is an edible mushroom or not
According to the description of the boletus mushroom, it is completely edible and belongs to the gourmet category. You can eat both hats and legs. True, among mushroom lovers, the latter are valued much more for their ability to maintain shape and structure. If the caps become soft after boiling and many do not like their consistency, then the legs retain a pleasant strength.
Boletus is considered one of the most delicious mushrooms. It is not without reason that during the autumn hikes in the forest, finding it is considered a great success for a mushroom picker. The mushroom retains its pleasant taste in all forms after any processing - boiling, frying and marinating.
Benefits and harm to the body
When used for food, boletus is not only able to please with a pleasant taste. It has a valuable composition because its pulp contains:
- fats and carbohydrates;
- vitamins B1 and B2;
- vitamin C;
- vitamins E and PP;
- potassium and manganese;
- a huge amount of easily digestible plant proteins;
- iron, sodium and phosphorus;
At the same time, the calorie content of birch is only 20 kcal per 100 g, with its high nutritional value, it can be considered a dietary product.
Due to the chemical composition of the boletus mushroom, its use has a beneficial effect on the human body.
In particular, he:
- helps to remove toxins and toxins from the body, since it has absorbing properties;
- supports healthy liver and kidney function;
- regulates sugar levels and is very useful in case of a tendency to diabetes;
- prevents the development of vitamin deficiency and anemia, the use of birch wood supplies the body with iron, vitamins and valuable trace elements;
- can serve as a substitute for animal protein in the diet, it will be especially useful for vegetarians;
- supports the normal functioning of the heart and vascular system;
- increases immune resistance due to vitamin C and other important substances;
- has a good effect on diet, since it does not contribute to weight gain, but it is great for filling.
Of course, even the gourmet boletus has certain contraindications. It can damage the mushroom primarily with individual intolerance, it is quite rare, but it exists. Also, you should not use mushroom pulp for chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines and during exacerbations - birch is difficult to digest and can worsen the condition.
Advice! Due to the large amount of protein in the composition of the mushroom, it is not recommended to eat it with a tendency to constipation. You should also control the amount of birch tree, in excessive dosages, it will create an unnecessary burden on digestion.
The culinary use of boletus mushrooms is very extensive - these mushrooms belong to the category of universal ones and are suitable for any cooking method. Fruit bodies are fried and boiled, pickled and dried, added to soups and salads.
Although boletus is a completely edible mushroom, it must be processed before cooking. First of all, the fruit body is cleaned of plant debris and adhered earth, the skin is peeled off and the leg is cut off at the bottom. After that, the mushroom is washed in cold water.
Unlike many other mushrooms, birch trees do not require soaking. However, it is necessary to put it in water with the addition of lemon juice for at least half an hour - this will prevent the pulp from turning blue. The prepared birch tree is boiled twice, first boiled for 5 minutes after boiling, and then the water is changed and boiled for another half hour along with a whole onion, bay leaf and a couple of peppercorns. Boiled boletus mushrooms can be fried with vegetables, added to salads and side dishes, or pickled.
The medicinal use of the product deserves a mention. Since the birch tree contains a lot of nutrients, many ailments are treated with it. For example, tinctures with boletus are used to treat gout and osteochondrosis as rubbing. Taking tinctures inside has a positive effect on the state of the reproductive system, and home remedies with the addition of boletus boletus have an analgesic and sedative effect.
A photo of a boletus mushroom is very easy to remember, this edible mushroom has very characteristic external features, although the size and shade of some species may differ. You can safely eat birch wood, it does not contain any toxic substances and is very useful for the body.