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Chrysanthemum is a perennial plant that blooms in autumn. The crop is used in ornamental gardening or commercially for cutting. Chrysanthemum ampelous in Russia is rare. This variety is grown for vertical gardening and as a ground cover option.
Description of cascading chrysanthemums
Varieties of ampelous cascading chrysanthemums are native to Japan.
In the land of the rising sun, an unusual style of bush formation is called kengai.
For vertical gardening, chrysanthemums have been created with long thin stems and small flowers with a diameter of 1.5-7 cm, in shape they can be simple double or anemone. The color of the flowers is varied. They are yellow, red, white, blue, which allows you to create colorful cascading compositions. Kengai is quite common and popular in European countries. There, chrysanthemum is used as an ampelous plant for decorating balconies.
In Russia, in the last century, ampelous chrysanthemums were grown only in botanical gardens. We used several varieties adapted to the weather conditions of the Central strip. Over time, varieties of culture appeared on the free market. They are used for growing in pots and outdoors.
To get a cascading version, the stems are directed downward at any angle that matches the design idea. If you do not use the cascading technique, the stems grow upward, and the bush will not differ from ordinary chrysanthemums. The composition will require special supports or frames of various shapes, to which the shoots are fixed.
Ampel chrysanthemums in landscape design
Chrysanthemums are grown in flower pots, they create compositions of different colors. Stems are thin and flexible, can reach a length of 120 cm, ampelous varieties are specially bred to create cascading options, flowers completely cover the plant, 100 or more inflorescences are formed on one bush. The culture is used to decorate summer verandas, balconies, special frames are used on the site or in gardens.
The variety is suitable for an open area, it is planted for the decoration of rock gardens, rockeries. The stems are fixed to the soil surface in an upright position, at different levels, a ground cover, cascade version is obtained.
Several design ideas using ampelous chrysanthemums:
Varieties of cascading chrysanthemums
Cascading chrysanthemum varieties differ in stem length, flower shape and color. Agricultural techniques and methods of crown formation are the same for all varieties. The flowering period is also the same. All representatives bloom in September or early October.
Important! A frost-resistant crop with strong immunity is suitable for growing in Russian conditions.
To choose a suitable variety for landscaping a site, you need to familiarize yourself with its characteristics and requirements for agricultural technology.
The cascading perennial variety has a good cold resistance, the flowers do not crumble when the temperature drops to -5 0C. Stems are thin, 70-80 cm long, yellow flowers with an orange core.
Jaune has semi-double flowers, 6 cm in diameter
Contes de Secourt
Contes de Secur is a perennial ampelous chrysanthemum, belonging to the elite varieties. The length of the stems is more than 120 cm, the foliage and the arrangement of the inflorescences are dense. The flowers are spherical, dense, white or light cream.
Diameter of flowers Contes de Secur - 3.5 cm
Meteor Shower is a miniature annual plant suitable for hanging planters. The length of the stems does not exceed 20 cm, the diameter of the flowers is 2.0 cm. This variety is propagated by seedlings.
Meteor shower features bright lemon semi-double flowers
Aurora is a Korean chrysanthemum variety. It is a perennial plant with stems up to 70 cm long. It is grown as an ampelous crop. The characteristics indicate low frost resistance, therefore, the container is brought into a heated room for the winter.
Aurora's flowers are large - up to 8 cm in diameter, double, dark pink with an orange core
Perennial frost-resistant crop for open ground. The length of the stems is 1m or more. The bush is dense, characterized by intensive formation of inflorescences.
Livingstone has semi-double flowers with tubular pink petals, 6 cm in diameter
Medium-sized plant with thin, flexible stems 80 cm high. Suitable for open ground. The flowers are semi-double, purple, 5 cm in diameter.
Natalie's frost resistance is average, the culture needs shelter for the winter
The variety is not common, universal. It can be grown in pots and outdoors, but is more often used to decorate rock gardens, included in a cascade composition with other varieties. Stems reach a length of 60 cm, foliage and abundance of flowering are average.
Flowers are dark pink, anemone, 5 cm in diameter
Small-flowered variety with numerous thin stems and intense foliage. Grown as an ampelous plant to create cascading structures. Stems 55 cm long, flowers - 1.5 cm.The colors can be white, light pink or cream.
Vanilla has an anemone type of flowers with a tubular core.
Growing and caring for ampelous chrysanthemums
Chrysanthemum is a plant that is demanding not only for the soil, but also for subsequent care. Growing an ampelous plant is possible only if a number of conditions are met.
Selection and preparation of the landing site
Chrysanthemum is a light-loving culture, a lack of lighting will affect the density of the bush and the intensity of budding, in the shade the color of dark flowers will be faded. The plant does not tolerate exposure to the north wind, therefore, a site protected from drafts is taken away. The culture prefers loamy soil rich in organic matter.
For planting, the soil is dug up on the site, compost, sand, nitrophosphate and wood ash are added.
Planting work is carried out at the end of May, when there is no threat of return frosts:
- A hole is made 30 cm deep, the bottom is covered with a drainage pillow (the requirements are the same for open ground and pots).
- The seedling is placed vertically, covered with soil.
- Water abundantly. On the site, the root circle can be closed with peat.
- In cascade variants, the distance from the plants is maintained at about 30 cm.
Important! After placing in the ground, the tops are pinched, after 20 days the procedure is repeated.
The pots with seedlings are placed in a shaded place, before the chrysanthemum takes root, they are covered with a cloth.
3 cuttings of different colors of flowers are planted in a container to create a composition
Watering and feeding
Ampel chrysanthemum does not tolerate moisture deficit, with irregular watering, the stems become fragile, stiff, which complicates the horizontal formation of the bush. Moisten the soil regularly, especially in hot weather. Watered only at the root, water should not be allowed to enter the aboveground part, especially during the period of budding and flowering.
Top dressing is a prerequisite of agricultural technology, they are carried out according to the following schedule:
- Before budding. In order for the plant to gain green mass well, urea and nitrophosphate are added.
- During bud formation (in August). They are fed with Agricola for flowering plants and superphosphate.
- At the peak of flowering, fertilize with potassium sulfate.
Attention! Fertilizer is applied at the root so that the substance does not get on the leaves and does not cause burns.
How to form a cascading chrysanthemum
To obtain a lush crown, the formation of an ampelous chrysanthemum begins immediately after placement in the soil:
- 6 leaves are left on the cutting from the bottom, the top is broken off.
- After 3 weeks, lateral shoots will appear from the leaf sinuses. The uppermost ones are not touched, and the lower ones are pinched to the fourth sheet.
- Until the moment of flowering, all lateral processes are constantly shortened by 2 leaves.
- Near the bush, slats are stuck on both sides, maintaining a distance of 1 m between them.The height of the bar on the south side is 20 cm, on the north side - 50 cm.Another rail is fixed between them at an angle of 45 °, the lower lowered part should be on the south side.
As the stems grow, they are fixed to a horizontal support and gradually reduce the degree of the angle
When the shoots begin to fall, it is necessary to tie a load to them or install a flower pot on a frame with devices for further fixation. If the cascade is formed in the open field, the initial principle is the same, then the stems must be fixed with long, thin staples. In autumn, the branches are shortened to 20 cm.
Reproduction of cascading chrysanthemums
Some ampelous annual varieties reproduce generatively. Seeds for seedlings are laid in March, seedlings dive and in spring they are planted on the site. Most often, small-flowered perennial varieties are propagated vegetatively. Cuttings 12-15 cm long are harvested in spring or summer, they are cut from the lateral shoots of old stems. Placed in boxes with a fertile substrate and stored at a temperature of +14 0C, in the spring it is determined to a permanent place. The method of dividing the mother bush can be used at any time of the growing season.
Diseases and pests of cascading chrysanthemums
Ampel varieties are good at resisting infection. Downy mildew and gray mold are a threat to chrysanthemums.
Fungal infection of chrysanthemums is eliminated by means of "Topaz"
Solution consumption - 1 liter per 10 sq. m, concentration - 40 ml of the drug per 10 liters of water.
Parasitize the culture:
- mining moths;
Slugs get rid of with "Metaldehyde"
Iskra is used against insects and their larvae
Attention! The main threat is a nematode, the affected plant is thrown away, and the soil is not used for further planting.
Photo of ampelous chrysanthemums
Several ampelous chrysanthemums that can be used to create a cascade, both in pots and in an open area:
Chrysanthemum ampelous - ideal for vertical gardening. The culture is used to decorate balconies, gardens, recreation areas. Cascading compositions are created using ready-made frames, and the rock garden is planted on a hill. The flowering time is the same for all varieties; agricultural technology is also the same.